Analytical Gas Chromatography - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123843555, 9780323141079

Analytical Gas Chromatography

1st Edition

Authors: Walter Jennings
eBook ISBN: 9780323141079
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 4th August 1987
Page Count: 270
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Analytical Gas Chromatography is a free-standing introduction to and guide through the rapidly progressing field of analytical gas chromatography. The book is divided into 10 chapters that cover various aspects of analytical gas chromatography, from most advantageous column type to troubleshooting. The opening chapters of the book discuss the advantages of the open tubular column over the packed column. This topic is followed by significant chapters on various variables in the gas chromatographic process, including sample injection, stationary phase, carrier gas, and installation. The effect of changes in these variables on the solution elution order is also considered. A chapter also examines the influence of instrumental design features, such as excessive or unswept volumes in the flow path; suitability of the detection mode; and speed and fidelity of the data-handling equipment. The book also presents selected methods that have been employed to achieve better results for a given gas chromatographic problem. The application areas of gas chromatographic process, including food, flavor, fragrance, petroleum- and chemical-related, environment, biology, and medicine, are also presented. The concluding chapter addresses the basic troubleshooting knowledge and considers other chromatographic problems and methods for their rectification.

Table of Contents


Chapter 1 Introduction

1.1 General Considerations

1.2 A Simplistic Approach

1.3 Simplistic Comparisons of Packed and Open Tubular Columns

1.4 Abbreviated Theory of the Chromatographie Process

1.5 Separation of Components

1.6 Effect of Carrier Gas Velocity


Chapter 2 The Open Tubular Column

2.1 General Considerations

2.2 The Tubing

2.3 Sources of Activity

2.4 Structural Flaws

2.5 Flexible Columns of Conventional Glasses

2.6 Silanol Deactivation

2.7 Column Coating


Chapter 3 Sample Injection

3.1 General Considerations

3.2 Extra Chromatographic Phenomena Influencing Band Length

3.3 Chromatographic Factors Influencing Band Length

3.4 Injection into Large-Diameter Open Tubular Columns

3.5 Split Injection

3.6 Splitless Injection

3.7 Programmed Temperature Vaporizing Injector (PTV)

3.8 Retention Gap Focusing


Chapter 4 The Stationary Phase

4.1 General Considerations

4.2 Stationary Phase Polarity and Selectivity

4.3 Polysiloxane Stationary Phases: General Comments

4.4 Dimethyl Polysiloxane Stationary Phases

4.5 Other Silicone Stationary Phases

4.6 Bonded, Cross-Linked, and/or Immobilized Stationary Phases

4.7 Polyethylene Glycol Stationary Phases

4.8 Enantiomer Separations

4.9 Other Special-Selectivity Stationary Phases

4.10 Gas-Solid Adsorption Columns


Chapter 5 Variables in the Gas Chromatographic Process

5.1 General Considerations

5.2 Regulation of the Gas Velocity

5.3 The van Deemter Curve

5.4 Optimum Practical Gas Velocity

5.5 Computer-Generated Curves

5.6 Effect of Solute Partition Ratios on Optimum Gas Velocities

5.7 Effect of Solute Partition Ratios on Separation Potentials

5.8 Effect of Column Length

5.9 Effect of Column Diameter

5.10 Effect of Stationary Phase Film Thickness

5.11 Effect of Stationary Phase Diffusivity

5.12 Changes in Solute Elution Order


Chapter 6 Column Selection, Installation, and Use

6.1 General Considerations

6.2 Selecting the Stationary Phase

6.3 Stationary Phase Selectivity

6.4 Selecting the Column Length

6.5 Selecting the Column Diameter

6.6 Selecting the Stationary Phase Film Thickness

6.7 Column Installation

6.8 Column Conditioning

6.9 Optimizing Operational Parameters for Specific Columns

6.10 Columns for Mass Spectrometry


Chapter 7 Instrument Conversion and Adaptation

7.1 General Considerations

7.2 Oven Considerations

7.3 Carrier Gas Considerations

7.4 Packed to Large-Diameter Open Tubular Conversion

7.5 Packed to Capillary Conversion

7.6 Makeup Gas Considerations

7.7 Inlet Deactivation


Chapter 8 Special Analytical Techniques

8.1 General Considerations

8.2 Flow Stream Switching

8.3 Recycle Chromatography

8.4 Multidimensional Chromatography

8.5 Specifically Designed Stationary Phases

8.6 Vapor Samples and Headspace Injections


Chapter 9 Selected Applications

9.1 General Considerations

9.2 Food, Flavor, and Fragrance Applications

9.3 Petroleum- and Chemical-Related Applications

9.4 Environmental Applications

9.5 Biological and Medical Applications


Chapter 10 Troubleshooting

10.1 General Considerations

10.2 Use of Test Mixtures

10.3 Column Bleed

10.4 Temperature and Oxygen Effects

10.5 Column Rejuvenation

10.6 Peak Distortion

10.7 Other Sorptive Residues

10.8 Column Coupling and Junction Problems

10.9 Flame Jet Problems


Appendix Abbreviations, Terms, and Nomenclature



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© Academic Press 1987
Academic Press
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About the Author

Walter Jennings

Affiliations and Expertise

Dept. of Food Science and Technology, University of California, Davis

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