Analytical Applications of Ion Exchangers - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080135458, 9781483154732

Analytical Applications of Ion Exchangers

1st Edition

Authors: J. Inczédy
Editors: I. Buzás
eBook ISBN: 9781483154732
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1966
Page Count: 456
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Description

Analytical Applications of Ion Exchangers presents the laboratory use of ion-exchange resins. This book discusses the development in the analytical application of ion exchangers. Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the history and significance of ion exchangers for technical purposes. This text then describes the properties of ion exchangers, which are large molecular water-insoluble polyelectrolytes having a cross-linked structure that contains ionic groups. Other chapters consider the theories concerning the operation of ion-exchange resins and investigate the preparation of resin products that contain groups specific for particular ions or groups of ions. This book discusses as well the ion-exchange processes and the various operation methods, including batch method, column method, and continual countercurrent ion-exchange. The final chapter surveys the other materials related to ion-exchange resins that can be used for analytical purposes in laboratory work. This book is a valuable resource for analytical chemists, research workers.

Table of Contents


Preface

1. History and Importance of Ion Exchangers

2. Ion Exchangers

2.1. Preparation of Ion Exchangers

2.1.1. Inorganic Ion Exchangers

2.1.2. Natural Organic Ion Exchangers

2.1.3. Synthetic Resin Ion Exchangers

2.2. Properties of Ion Exchangers and Factors Affecting Them

2.2.1. Color, Density and Mechanical Resistance

2.2.2. Grain Size

2.2.3. Nature of Active Groups

2.2.4. Capacity

2.2.5. Selectivity

2.2.6. Degree of Cross-Linking

2.2.7. Porosity

2.2.8. Swelling

2.2.9. Operation Rate of Ion Exchangers

2.2.10. Chemical Resistance

2.2.11. Effect of Temperature on Ion Exchangers and on Their Operation

2.2.12. Behavior of Ion Exchangers in Non-Aqueous Solvents

3. Theory of Operation of Ion Exchangers

3.1. Ion-Exchange Equilibrium

3.2. Theory of Selectivity

3.3. Absorption of Ionic Compounds

3.4. Absorption of Non-Electrolytes

3.5. Ion-Exchange Kinetics

3.5.1. Kinetics of Particle Diffusion

3.5.2. Kinetics of Film Diffusion

3.6. Energy Changes in Ion-Exchange Processes

4. Methods for Laboratory Operation of Ion Exchangers. The Ion-Exchange Column

4.1. Laboratory Equipment Required

4.2. Preparation of a Laboratory Ion-Exchange Column

4.3. Operation of Ion-Exchange Columns

4.3.1. Ion-Exchange on Ion-Exchange Columns. Break-Through Capacity

4.3.3. Ion-Exchange Chromatography

4.3.4. Mathematical Interpretation of Number of Theoretical Plates and Practical Applications of the Derived Relationships

4.3.4.1. Elution Of Small Amounts of Ions

4.3.4.2. Displacement Ion-Exchange Processes

5. Methods Of Testing Ion-Exchange Resins and Columns

5.1. Methods for Testing Ion-Exchange Resins

5.1.1. Determination of Density

5.1.2. Determination of Grain Size

5.1.3. Determination of Water Content

5.1.4. Determination of Ash Content

5.1.5. Plotting a PH Titration Curve

5.1.6. Determination of Acid or Base Exponent

5.1.7. Determination of Capacity

5.1.8. Determination of Selectivity Coefficient

5.1.9. Investigation of Rate Of Ion-Exchange

5.1.10. Investigation of Stability

5.2. Methods for Testing Ion-Exchange Columns

5.2.1. Determination of Break-Through Capacity

5.2.2. Determination of Minimal Volume of Solution Required for Regeneration

5.2.3. Determination of Void Fraction

5.2.4. Determination of the Distribution Coefficient

5.2.5. Determination of Number of Theoretical Plates

6. Lon Exchangers in Inorganic Quantitative Analysis

6.1. Methods Based on the Principle of Total Ion-Exchange

6.1.1. Determination of Salt Content. Preparation of Standard Solutions of Acids and Bases

6.1.2. Removal of Interfering Ions

6.1.2.1. Removal of Cations to Facilitate the Determination of Anions

6.1.2.2. Removal of Anions to Facilitate the Determination of Cations

6.1.3. Enrichment of Trace Elements

6.2. Chromatographic Separations

6.2.1. Separation of Metal Ions with Cation-Exchange Column

6.2.2. Separation of Cations by Means of Anion-Exchange Column

6.2.3. Separation of Ions of Non-Metallic Elements

6.3. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions on Ion-Exchange Columns

6.4. Other Applications

7. Use of Ion Exchangers in Inorganic Qualitative Analysis

7.1. Removal of Interfering Ions

7.2. Separation of Groups of Cations

7.3. Microchemical Detection of Ions

8. Use of Ion Exchangers in Organic Analysis

8.1. Methods Based on Total Cation- Or Anion-Exchange

8.1.1 . Exchange of Cations for Hydrogen Ions

8.1.2. Exchange of Anions for Hydroxyl Ions

8.2. Isolation and Separation From Interfering Substances

8.3. Separation on the Basis of Opposite Charges

8.4. Separations by Means of Ion-Exchange Chromatography

8.4.1. Separation of Acids, Phenols and Other Compounds of Acidic Character

8.4.2. Separation of Amines and Other Compounds of Basic Character

8.4.3. Separation of Aldehydes and Ketones

8.4.4. Separation of Sugars, Polyalcohols and Other Polyhydroxy Compounds

8.4.5. Separation of Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins

8.5. Other Methods of Separation

8.5.1. Ion Exclusion

8.5.2. Salting-Out and Solubilization Chromatography

8.5.3. Separations on the Basis of Sizes of Ions or Molecules

8.6. Redox Reactions Taking Place on Ion-Exchange Column

8.7. Qualitative Analytical Applications

9. Other Laboratory Applications

9.1. Determination of Some Physico-Chemical Data of Electrolytes

9.1.1. Sign And Number of Charges of Ions. Composition of Complex Ions

9.1.2. Determination of Stability of Complexes

9.1.3. Ionic Activity

9.1.4. Determination of Dissociation Constant of Electrolytes

9.2. Purification of Various Substances and Solutions. Collection of Small Amounts of Ions

9.2.1. Preparation of Ion-Free Water

9.2.2. Purification of Other Substances and Solutions

9.2.3. Recovery of Ions

9.3. Ion-Exchange Catalysts

10. Other In-Exchange Materials and Their Use

10.1. Specification-Exchange Resins

10.2. Adsorbents and Amphoteric Ion-Exchange Resins

10.3. Liquid Ion Exchangers

10.4. Ion-Exchange Membranes

10.4.1. Theory of Operation of Ion-Exchange Membranes

10.4.2. Applications of Ion-Exchange Membranes

10.5. Ion-Exchange Papers

10.6. Oxidation-Reduction Resins

Appendix

Name Index

Subject Index


Details

No. of pages:
456
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Pergamon 1966
Published:
Imprint:
Pergamon
eBook ISBN:
9781483154732

About the Author

J. Inczédy

About the Editor

I. Buzás