Analysis, Removal, Effects and Risk of Pharmaceuticals in the Water Cycle

Analysis, Removal, Effects and Risk of Pharmaceuticals in the Water Cycle

Occurrence and Transformation in the Environment

2nd Edition - November 26, 2013

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  • Editors: Mira Petrovic, Sandra Perez, Damia Barcelo
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780444626578
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444626943

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Description

Analysis, Removal, Effects and Risk of Pharmaceuticals in the Water Cycle provides an overview of the current analytical methods for trace determination of pharmaceuticals in environmental samples. The book also reviews the fate and occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the water cycle for their elimination in wastewater and drinking water treatment, focusing on the newest developments in treatment technologies, such as membrane bioreactors and advanced oxidation processes. Pharmaceutically active substances are a class of new, so-called emerging contaminants that have raised great concern in recent years. Human and veterinary drugs are continuously being released into the environment mainly as a result of the manufacturing processes, the disposal of unused or expired products, and via excreta. The analytical methodology for the determination of trace pharmaceuticals in complex environmental matrices is still evolving, and the number of methods described in the literature has grown considerably. This volume leads the way, keeping chemistry students, toxicologists, engineers, wastewater managers and related professionals current with developments in this quickly evolving area.

Key Features

  • Covers the latest developments in trace determinations
  • Concise and critical compilation of the recent literature
  • Focuses on new treatment technologies

Readership

Chemistry students (undergraduate/graduate), analytical and environmental chemists, toxicologists, engineers, wastewater managers, risk assessors, and policy makers

Table of Contents

  • Series Page

    Contributors to Volume 62

    Series Editor's Preface

    Preface

    Chapter 1. General Introduction on Pharmaceuticals

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 The Pharmaceutical Industry

    3 Drug Discovery and Drug Development

    4 Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics

    5 Drug Metabolism

    6 Pharmaceuticals in the Environment: The Manufacturers' View

    References

    Chapter 2. Pharmaceuticals in the Environment: Sources and Their Management

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 What Do We Mean with the Term “Drug”? A Vernacular of Terminology

    3 How Large is the Universe of Drug Entities and Why Should It Matter?

    4 Understanding the Sources from Where Medications Can Become Environmental Contaminants

    5 Factors That Obscure or Confound the Origin of APIs or Source Apportionment

    6 Source as a Variable Influencing Exposure and Entry to the Environment

    7 Key Questions Related to Source and the Life Cycle of Drugs

    8 The “Matthew Effect”: A Major Potential Obstacle to a Comprehensive Understanding of Drugs as Environmental Contaminants

    9 Sustainability, Stewardship, and Pollution Prevention for Minimizing the Environmental Impact of APIs

    10 Final Thought: Treating the Patient and the Environment Together as One

    References

    Chapter 3. Prioritization: Selection of Environmentally Occurring Pharmaceuticals to Be Monitored

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 General Principles for Prioritization of Chemical Compounds

    3 Pharmaceuticals: Environmental Risk Assessment

    4 Summary of Some Relevant Prioritization Methods: Exposure-, Hazard-, and Risk-Based Schemes

    5 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 4. Analysis of Pharmaceuticals in Drinking Water, Groundwater, Surface Water, and Wastewater

    Abstract

    1 Introduction: Pharmaceuticals in Waters

    2 Analytical Techniques

    3 Target Analysis of Pharmaceuticals: Low-Level Detection and Case Studies

    4 Non-target Analysis of Pharmaceuticals

    5 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 5. Analysis of PhACs in Solid Environmental Samples (Soil, Sediment, and Sludge)

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Transport and Fate of PhACs in Solid Matrices

    3 Occurrence of PhACs in Solid Samples

    4 Sample Preparation

    5 Sample Cleanup and Concentration

    6 Quantitative Analytic Determination

    7 Conclusion

    Acknowledgment

    References

    Chapter 6. Analysis of Pharmaceutical Compounds in Biota

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Sample Preparation

    3 Sample Separation and Detection

    4 Matrix Effects

    5 Environmental Occurrence

    6 Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 7. Application of Bioassays/Biosensors for the Analysis of Pharmaceuticals in Environmental Samples

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Bioassays

    3 Biochemical Assays

    4 Biosensors

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 8. Removal of Pharmaceuticals by Conventional Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Chapter Framework

    3 Conventional Wastewater Treatments

    4 Pharmaceutical Compounds Included in the Study

    5 Occurrence in the Influent and in the Effluent

    6 Occurrence in Sewage Sludge

    7 PhC Removal by Conventional WWTPs

    8 Properties Predicting Removal in CAS

    9 Operational Factors Affecting PhC Removal

    10 Mass Load Discharged by CAS Systems

    11 Environmental Risk of Residual PhCs in Treated Effluent and Sludge

    12 Modeling

    13 CAS: Treatment of Pharmaceutical Industry Wastewaters

    14 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 9. Removal of Pharmaceuticals by Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) Technology

    Abstract

    1 Innovative Technologies for Emerging Issues

    2 MBRs for the Elimination of Pharmaceuticals: 10 Years of Research

    3 Efficiency of MBRs to Remove Pharmaceuticals from Wastewater

    4 Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 10. Removal of Pharmaceuticals by Ultrafiltration (UF), Nanofiltration (NF), and Reverse Osmosis (RO)

    Abstract

    1 Introduction to the Membrane Pressure Processes

    2 Removal of Pharmaceuticals by UF

    3 Removal of Pharmaceuticals by NF and RO

    4 Influences on Pharmaceuticals Rejection by NF and RO

    5 Hybrid Systems with UF, NF, and RO

    References

    Chapter 11. Removal of Pharmaceuticals from Environmentally Relevant Matrices by Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs)

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Assessment of AOPs Performance for Pharmaceutical Removal

    3 Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 12. Removal of Pharmaceutical Compounds from Wastewater and Surface Water by Natural Treatments

    Abstract

    Abbreviations

    1 Introduction

    2 Constructed Wetlands

    3 Ponds

    4 Buffer Strips

    5 Natural and Restored Wetlands

    6 Future Trends

    7 Concluding Remarks

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 13. Removal of Pharmaceuticals by Bank Filtration and Artificial Recharge and Recovery

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Factors Influencing the Behavior of Pharmaceuticals in Bank Filtration and Artificial Recharge and Recovery

    3 Attenuation of Pharmaceuticals During Bank Filtration and Artificial Recharge and Recovery

    4 Hybridization of Bank Filtration and Artificial Recharge and Recovery in Multibarrier Treatment

    5 Research Needs

    6 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 14. Fate and Occurrence of Pharmaceuticals in the Aquatic Environment (Surface Water and Sediment)

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Fate in the Aquatic Environment

    3 Occurrence in the Aquatic Environment

    4 Summary

    References

    Chapter 15. Fate and Occurrence of PhACs in the Terrestrial Environment

    Abstract

    Abbreviations

    1 Introduction

    2 Occurrence of Pharmaceuticals in Soils

    3 Fate of Pharmaceuticals in Agricultural Soils

    4 Occurrence of Pharmaceuticals in Agricultural Soils

    5 Environmental Risks

    6 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 16. Methods for Elucidation of Transformation Pathways: Identification of Intermediate Products, Chiral, and Isotope-Ratio Mass Spectrometry Analysis

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Advances in Separation and Detection Techniques for Evaluation of the Degradability of Pharmaceutical Compounds

    3 Determination of TPs in the Aquatic Environment for Evaluation of the Degradability

    4 Changes in the Enantiomeric Fraction

    5 Isotopic Fraction of Pharmaceuticals in the Environment

    6 Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 17. Deciphering Emerging Toxicological Effects of Pharmaceuticals on Aquatic Organisms by Using Daphnia magna and Danio rerio as Model Organisms

    Abstract

    Abbreviations

    1 Introduction

    2 Deciphering Adverse Effects of Pharmaceuticals in Nonvertebrate Species

    3 Analysis of the Toxicity of Pharmaceuticals in Aquatic Vertebrate Species by Using the Zebrafish Model

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 18. The Effect of PhACs on Biological Communities in Rivers: Field Studies

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Ecology and Ecotoxicology of Biological Communities in Rivers

    3 Effects on Biological Communities

    4 The Llobregat River Basin: A Relevant Study Case

    References

    Chapter 19. Antibiotic Resistance in the Aquatic Environment

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Acquisition of ARGs in Aquatic Ecosystems and Development of Antibiotic Resistance

    3 Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 20. Reporting and Evaluating Ecotoxicity Data for Environmental Risk Assessment: How Can Current Practices Be Improved?

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Environmental Risk Assessment of Pharmaceuticals: The EMA Rules

    3 Evaluation of Test Data: The Scientific Basis of Risk Assessment

    4 Standard and Nonstandard Test Protocols

    5 Regulators Promote the Use of Standard Tests (and Good Laboratory Practice)

    6 Available Methods to Promote a Structured Approach to Test Data Evaluation

    7 Can We Improve the Process for Data Evaluation?

    8 Can We Improve Reporting of Data?

    9 Summary and Conclusions

    Acknowledgments and Competing Interests

    References

    Chapter 21. Conclusions and Future Research Needs

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Chemical Analysis

    3 Wastewater Treatment

    4 Occurrence Studies

    5 Fate and Behavior

    6 Toxicity and Effects on Freshwater Ecosystems

    References

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 600
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier Science 2013
  • Published: November 26, 2013
  • Imprint: Elsevier Science
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780444626578
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444626943

About the Series Volume Editors

Mira Petrovic

Affiliations and Expertise

Catalan Institute for Water Research ICRA, Spain

Sandra Perez

Sandra Perez
Dr. Sandra Pérez Solsona, (80 publications and 17 book chapters; H-index=27), Barcelona (Spain). Since May 2005, research associate at the Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research IDÆA-CSIC in Barcelona (Spain). She has a Ph.D. in Chemistry from the University of Barcelona (2003). Postdoctoral researcher at the State University of New York at Buffalo (2003-2005). Her work is focused on studying the occurrence, distribution and degradation of pollutants in the aquatic environment. Use of advanced mass spectrometry techniques such as the hybrid techniques UPLC-QToF-MS and UPLC-QExactive-MS, for the structural elucidation of novel transformation products and metabolites of organic pollutants. She uses suspect screening and non-target approaches based on high resolution MS for the detection of polar emerging contaminants and for assessing their elimination and transformation in both natural processes and engineered systems. She has been involved in different EU projects (EMCO, SANDRINE and GLOBAQUA), NSF projects in EEUU and Spanish national projects (CEMAGUA and SCARCE). Principal investigator of CSI-Environment (Marie Curie Actions ITN CSI:Environment PITN-GA-2010-264329).

Affiliations and Expertise

Inst. of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, Spain

Damia Barcelo

Prof. dr. Barcelo Damia, Director of the Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA) and Professor at the Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA), Barcelona, Spain. His expertise is in water quality assessment and management, fate, risk and removal of emerging contaminants in wastewater treatment plants and analysis, fate and risk of emerging contaminants and nanomaterials in the aquatic environment. He published over 900 papers, 200 book chapters and has h index 91. He was a coordinator of several national and EU projects and at the moment he coordinates two EU projects: GLOBAQUA , on multiple stressors in the aquatic environment and SEA-on-a-CHIP, on the development of sensor technolgies for emerging contamaints in marine aquaculture. He is CoEditor in Chief of the journal Science of Total Environment and the book series Comprehensive Analytical Chemistry, both form Elsevier..

Affiliations and Expertise

Inst. of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, Spain

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