Analysis, Removal, Effects and Risk of Pharmaceuticals in the Water Cycle, Volume 62

2nd Edition

Occurrence and Transformation in the Environment

Series Volume Editors: Mira Petrovic Sandra Perez Damia Barcelo
Hardcover ISBN: 9780444626578
eBook ISBN: 9780444626943
Imprint: Elsevier Science
Published Date: 26th November 2013
Page Count: 600
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Table of Contents

Series Page

Contributors to Volume 62

Series Editor's Preface


Chapter 1. General Introduction on Pharmaceuticals


1 Introduction

2 The Pharmaceutical Industry

3 Drug Discovery and Drug Development

4 Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics

5 Drug Metabolism

6 Pharmaceuticals in the Environment: The Manufacturers' View


Chapter 2. Pharmaceuticals in the Environment: Sources and Their Management


1 Introduction

2 What Do We Mean with the Term “Drug”? A Vernacular of Terminology

3 How Large is the Universe of Drug Entities and Why Should It Matter?

4 Understanding the Sources from Where Medications Can Become Environmental Contaminants

5 Factors That Obscure or Confound the Origin of APIs or Source Apportionment

6 Source as a Variable Influencing Exposure and Entry to the Environment

7 Key Questions Related to Source and the Life Cycle of Drugs

8 The “Matthew Effect”: A Major Potential Obstacle to a Comprehensive Understanding of Drugs as Environmental Contaminants

9 Sustainability, Stewardship, and Pollution Prevention for Minimizing the Environmental Impact of APIs

10 Final Thought: Treating the Patient and the Environment Together as One


Chapter 3. Prioritization: Selection of Environmentally Occurring Pharmaceuticals to Be Monitored


1 Introduction

2 General Principles for Prioritization of Chemical Compounds

3 Pharmaceuticals: Environmental Risk Assessment

4 Summary of Some Relevant Prioritization Methods: Exposure-, Hazard-, and Risk-Based Schemes

5 Conclusions


Chapter 4. Analysis of Pharmaceuticals in Drinking Water, Groundwater, Surface Water, and Wastewater


1 Introduction: Pharmac


Analysis, Removal, Effects and Risk of Pharmaceuticals in the Water Cycle provides an overview of the current analytical methods for trace determination of pharmaceuticals in environmental samples. The book also reviews the fate and occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the water cycle for their elimination in wastewater and drinking water treatment, focusing on the newest developments in treatment technologies, such as membrane bioreactors and advanced oxidation processes.

Pharmaceutically active substances are a class of new, so-called emerging contaminants that have raised great concern in recent years. Human and veterinary drugs are continuously being released into the environment mainly as a result of the manufacturing processes, the disposal of unused or expired products, and via excreta. The analytical methodology for the determination of trace pharmaceuticals in complex environmental matrices is still evolving, and the number of methods described in the literature has grown considerably. This volume leads the way, keeping chemistry students, toxicologists, engineers, wastewater managers and related professionals current with developments in this quickly evolving area.

Key Features

  • Covers the latest developments in trace determinations
  • Concise and critical compilation of the recent literature
  • Focuses on new treatment technologies


Chemistry students (undergraduate/graduate), analytical and environmental chemists, toxicologists, engineers, wastewater managers, risk assessors, and policy makers


No. of pages:
© Elsevier Science 2013
Elsevier Science
eBook ISBN:
Hardcover ISBN:

About the Series Volume Editors

Mira Petrovic Series Volume Editor

Affiliations and Expertise

Catalan Institute for Water Research ICRA, Spain

Sandra Perez Series Volume Editor

Dr. Sandra Pérez Solsona, (80 publications and 17 book chapters; H-index=27), Barcelona (Spain). Since May 2005, research associate at the Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research IDÆA-CSIC in Barcelona (Spain). She has a Ph.D. in Chemistry from the University of Barcelona (2003). Postdoctoral researcher at the State University of New York at Buffalo (2003-2005). Her work is focused on studying the occurrence, distribution and degradation of pollutants in the aquatic environment. Use of advanced mass spectrometry techniques such as the hybrid techniques UPLC-QToF-MS and UPLC-QExactive-MS, for the structural elucidation of novel transformation products and metabolites of organic pollutants. She uses suspect screening and non-target approaches based on high resolution MS for the detection of polar emerging contaminants and for assessing their elimination and transformation in both natural processes and engineered systems. She has been involved in different EU projects (EMCO, SANDRINE and GLOBAQUA), NSF projects in EEUU and Spanish national projects (CEMAGUA and SCARCE). Principal investigator of CSI-Environment (Marie Curie Actions ITN CSI:Environment PITN-GA-2010-264329).

Affiliations and Expertise

Inst. of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, Spain

Damia Barcelo Series Volume Editor

Prof. dr. Barcelo Damia, Director of the Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA) and Professor at the Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA), Barcelona, Spain. His expertise is in water quality assessment and management, fate, risk and removal of emerging contaminants in wastewater treatment plants and analysis, fate and risk of emerging contaminants and nanomaterials in the aquatic environment. He published over 900 papers, 200 book chapters and has h index 91. He was a coordinator of several national and EU projects and at the moment he coordinates two EU projects: GLOBAQUA , on multiple stressors in the aquatic environment and SEA-on-a-CHIP, on the development of sensor technolgies for emerging contamaints in marine aquaculture. He is CoEditor in Chief of the journal Science of Total Environment and the book series Comprehensive Analytical Chemistry, both form Elsevier..

Affiliations and Expertise

Inst. of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, Spain