# Analysis of Engineering Cycles

## 3rd Edition

### Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics Series

**Authors:**R. W. Haywood

**Editors:**W. A. Woods

**eBook ISBN:**9781483140513

**Imprint:**Pergamon

**Published Date:**1st January 1980

**Page Count:**348

## Description

Analysis of Engineering Cycles, Third Edition, deals principally with an analysis of the overall performance, under design conditions, of work-producing power plants and work-absorbing refrigerating and gas-liquefaction plants, most of which are either cyclic or closely related thereto. The book is organized into two parts, dealing first with simple power and refrigerating plants and then moving on to more complex plants. The principal modifications in this Third Edition arise from the updating and expansion of material on nuclear plants and on combined and binary plants. In view of increased importance and topicality, new material has been added to chapters on gas-turbine plant for compressed air energy storage systems and on steam-turbine plant for the combined supply of power and process steam, including plant for district heating. The use of gas-turbine plant in association with district-heating schemes is also discussed, in which the treatment of high-temperature and fast-breeder gas-cooled nuclear reactors has been extended. The material on combined gas-turbine/steam-turbine plant has also been expanded and updated, together with that on combined steam plant with magnetohydrodynamic and thermionic topping, respectively. This book meets the immediate requirements of the mechanical engineering student in his undergraduate course, and of other engineering students taking courses in thermodynamics and fluid mechanics.

## Table of Contents

Preface to the Third Edition

Preface to the Second Edition (SI Units)

Preface to the First Edition

Editorial Introduction

Part I. Simple Power and Refrigerating Plants

1. Power Plant Performance Parameters

1.1 Operation of the Simple Steam Plant

1.2 Internal-Combustion and External-Combustion Gas-Turbine Plant

1.3 Operation of the Simple Gas-Turbine Plant

1.4 Performance Parameters for Cyclic Steam and Gas-Turbine Plant

1.5 Performance Criteria

2. Simple Steam Plant

2.1 Performance Parameters

2.2 Performance Criterion for the Efficiency of the Simple Steam Cycle—Rankine Cycle Efficiency

2.3 The Ideal Rankine Cycle

2.4 Expressions for the Rankine Cycle Efficiency

2.5 Comparison of Actual and Ideal Performance - The Efficiency Ratio

2.6 Imperfections in the Actual Steam Plant - The Effect of Irreversibilities

2.7 Lost Work due to Irreversibility

2.8 Alternative Expressions for Rankine Cycle Efficiency and Efficiency Ratio in Terms of Available Energy

2.9 Variation in Cycle Efficiency with Change in the Design Steam Conditions

3. Simple Closed-Circuit Gas-Turbine Plant

3.1 Performance Parameters

3.2 Performance Criterion for the Efficiency of the Simple Gas-Turbine Cycle—Joule Cycle Efficiency

3.3 The ideal Joule Cycle

3.4 Expression for the Joule Cycle Efficiency 33

3.5 Variation of nJOULE with Pressure Ratio

3.6 Imperfections in the Actual Plant - the Effect of Irreversibilities

3.7 Variation of Wnet with Op in the Irreversible Cycle

3.8 Variation of nCY with Op in the Irreversible Cycle

3.9 Comparison of Gas and Steam Constant-Pressure Cycles

4. Internal - Combustion Power Plant

4.1 Introduction

4.2 A Rational Performance Criterion for IC Plant—WREV

4.3 A Rational Performance Parameter for IC Plant—The Rational (Exergetic) Efficiency

4.4 An Arbitrary Performance Parameter for IC Plant - The Overall Efficiency

4.5 Comparison of the Rational and Overall Efficiencies

4.6 A Practical Performance Parameter - The Specific Fuel Consumption

4.7 The Performance of Turbine and Reciprocating IC Plant

4.8 An Arbitrary Performance Criterion for IC Plant — The Thermal Efficiency of a Corresponding Ideal Air-Standard Cycle

4.9 Air-Standard Cycle for Gas-Turbine Plant—The Joule Cycle

4.10 Air-Standard Cycles for Reciprocating IC Engines

4.11 The Ideal Air-Standard Otto Cycle

4.12 The Ideal Air-Standard Diesel Cycle

4.13 Comparison of nOTTO and nDIESEL

4.14 Comparison of the Performance of Petrol and Diesel Engines

4.15 The Ideal Air-Standard Dual Cycle

4.16 Other Performance Parameters for IC Engines

5. Simple Refrigerating Plant

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Refrigerators and Heat Pumps

5.3 Performance Parameters—Coefficient of Performance, and Work Input per Tonne of Refrigeration

5.4 The Ideal Reversed Car not Cycle

5.5 The Ideal Vapor-Compression Cycle

5.6 CP of Ideal Vapor-Compression Cycle in Terms of Enthalpies

5.7 CP of the Ideal Vapor-Compression Refrigerator Cycle in Terms of Mean Temperatures

5.8 Practical Vapor-Compression Cycles

5.9 The Quasi-Ideal Vapor-Compression Cycle

5.10 CP of Quasi-Ideal Vapor-Compression Cycle

5.11 The Effect of Throttle Expansion on Refrigerating Effect and Plant Performance

5.12 The Effects of Refrigerant Properties on Plant Performance

5.13 Desirable Refrigerant Properties

Part II. Advanced Power and Refrigerating Plants

6. Advanced Gas - Turbine Plant

6.1 Limitations of the Simple Gas-Turbine Cycle - The Importance of the Mean Temperatures of Heat Reception and Rejection

6.2 Exhaust-Gas Heat Exchanger—The CBTX Cycle

6.3 Heat-Exchanger Effectiveness ε

6.4 The (CBTX)r Cycle—(ηT = ηC = ε = 1)

6.5 The (CBT)r Xi Cycle—(ηT = ηC = 1, ε < 1)

6.6 The (CBTX)i cycle—(ηT < 1, ηC < 1, ε < 1)

6.7 Reheating and Inter-cooling

6.8 The (CBTRT)r and (CICBT)r Cycles

6.9 The (CBTRTX)r Cycle

6.10 The (CICBTX)r Cycle

6.11 Progressive Reheating and Inter-cooling to Give Carnot Efficiency - the (CICL.. BTRTRT... X)r Cycle

6.12 The Practical (CICBTRTX)i Cycle

6.13 Other Factors Affecting Cycle Performance

6.14 Gas-Turbine Plant for Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Systems

6.15 Gas-Turbine Cycles for Nuclear Power Plant

6.16 Non-Cyclic, Open-Circuit Plant

7. Advanced Steam - Turbine Plant

7.1 Limitations of the Simple Steam Cycle

7.2 The Effects of Advances in Terminal Steam Conditions

Feed Heating

7.3 Regenerative Feed Heating

7.4 Reversible Feed Heating Cycle Using Dry Saturated Steam from the Boiler

7.5 Reversible Feed Heating Cycle Using Superheated Steam from the Boiler

7.6 Reversible Feed -Heating Cycles Using Surface Feed Heaters

7.7 Summary of Results for Ideal Feed Heating Cycles

7.8 Practical Feed Heating Cycles with a Finite Number of heaters

7.9 Calculation of Boiler Flow Rate per Unit Flow to the Condenser

7.10 Calculation of Cycle Efficiency and Heat Rate

7.11 Optimum Division of the Total Enthalpy Rise amongst the Individual Heaters

7.12 Optimum Final Feed Temperature

7.13 Gain in Efficiency Due to Feed Heating

7.14 Choice of the Number of Feed Heating Stages

7.15 Subsidiary Effects of Feed Heating

Reheating

7.16 Reheating in the non-Regenerative Steam Cycles

7.17 Reheating in Regenerative Steam Cycles

7.18 Further Factors Relating to Reheating

7.19 Steam-Turbine Plant for the Combined Supply of Power and Process Steam

8. Nuclear Power Plant

8.1 Introduction

Gas-Cooled Reactors

8.2 The Simple Dual-Pressure Cycle

8.3 Calculation of HP and LP Steam Flows, and Cycle Efficiency

8.4 Efficiency of the Corresponding Ideal Dual-Pressure Cycle

8.5 The Effect of Circulator Power on the Plant Efficiency

8.6 The Effects of Regenerative Feed Heating

8.7 Later Developments in Magnox, Gas-Cooled Reactor Plant

8.8 Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor (AGR) Plant

8.9 High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) Plant

8.10 Gas-Turbine Cycles for Gas-Cooled Reactors

8.11 Gas-Cooled Fast-Breeder Reactor (GCFBR)

Liquid-Cooled Reactors

8.12 Types of Cycle

8.13 Direct-Cycle Plant

8.14 Indirect-Cycle Plant

8.15 Conclusion

9. Combined and Binary Plant

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Combined Gas-Steam Plant

9.3 The Ideal, Super-Regenerative Steam Cycle

9.4 The Field Cycle

9.5 The Effect on Plant Overall Efficiency of High Heat-Reception Temperature in Super-Regenerative Cycles

9.6 Combined Gas-Steam Plant Incorporating Gas Turbines

9.7 The Overall Efficiency of a Combined Gas-Steam Turbine Plant

9.8 Combined Gas-Steam Plant with Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Generation

9.9 The Overall Efficiency of an Open-Circuit MHD Combined Plant

9.10 Closed-Circuit Gas-Steam Binary Cycles for Nuclear Power Plant

9.11 Binary Vapor Cycles

9.12 Binary Cycle with Thermionic Generation

9.13 Conclusion

10. Advanced Refrigerating and Gas - Lique-Faction Plant

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Cyclic Absorption Refrigerating Plant

10.3 Performance Parameter for Absorption Refrigerators

10.4 Performance Criterion for Absorption Refrigerators

10.5 Multiple Vapor-Compression Cycles Operating in Cascade

10.6 Multiple Cascade Plant for the Production of Solid Carbon Dioxide (Dry Ice)

10.7 The Rational (Exergetic) Efficiency of the Dry-Ice Process

Refrigeration and Gas Liquefaction at Cryogenic Temperatures

10.8 Liquefaction of Gases by the Throttle-Expansion Linde Process

10.9 Operational Requirements in the Linde Process

10.10 Conditions for Maximum Liquid Yield in the Linde Process under Steady Operation

10.11 Conditions for Minimum Work Input per Unit Liquid Yield (Maximum Rational Efficiency)

10.12 The Rational (Exergetic) Efficiency of the Linde Process

10.13 The Effect of Heat Leak into the Plant

10.14 Modifications to the Linde Process to Give Plant of Higher Performance

10.15 The Simple Linde Process with Increased Precooling by Auxiliary Refrigeration

10.16 The Dual-Pressure Linde Process

10.17 The Claude and Heylandt Liquefaction Processes, Combining Work Expansion and Throttle Expansion

10.18 More Complex Plant Combining Work and Throttle Expansion

10.19 Gas Refrigerating Machines for Small-Scale Refrigeration and Gas Liquefaction at Cryogenic Temperatures

Appendix A Thermodynamic Availability and Irreversibility

A.1 Introduction

A.2 Aspects of Reversibility

A.3 Different Forms of Work Output

A.4 Important Theorems in Availability

A.5 Proof of Theorem 1

A.6 Entropy Creation and Thermal Entropy Flux

A.7 Proof of Theorem 2

A.8 Proof of Theorem 3

A.9 Derivation of Expressions for Reversible Gross Work Output

A.10 Expressions for Reversible Shaft Work Output - Available Energy

A.11 The Available Energy in Chemical Processes

A.12 Rational Efficiency

A.13 Exergy and the Dead State

A.14 Anergy

A.15 Available Energy, Exergy and Lost Work Due to Irreversibility in an Adiabatic Steady-Flow Process

Appendix B The Advance in Operating Conditions in Steam Power Stations

Appendix C Some Economic Considerations

C.l The Determination of the Economic Operating Conditions for Steam Power Plant

C.2 Loan Redemption—Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) Analysis

References

Index

## Details

- No. of pages:
- 348

- Language:
- English

- Copyright:
- © Pergamon 1980

- Published:
- 1st January 1980

- Imprint:
- Pergamon

- eBook ISBN:
- 9781483140513

## About the Author

### R. W. Haywood

### Affiliations and Expertise

University of Cambridge, UK