Analog Circuit Design

Analog Circuit Design

A Tutorial Guide to Applications and Solutions

1st Edition - August 30, 2011

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  • Editors: Bob Dobkin, Jim Williams
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123851864
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123851857

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Description

Analog circuit and system design today is more essential than ever before. With the growth of digital systems, wireless communications, complex industrial and automotive systems, designers are challenged to develop sophisticated analog solutions. This comprehensive source book of circuit design solutions will aid systems designers with elegant and practical design techniques that focus on common circuit design challenges. The book’s in-depth application examples provide insight into circuit design and application solutions that you can apply in today’s demanding designs.

Key Features

  • Covers the fundamentals of linear/analog circuit and system design to guide engineers with their design challenges
  • Based on the Application Notes of Linear Technology, the foremost designer of high performance analog products, readers will gain practical insights into design techniques and practice
  • Broad range of topics, including power management tutorials, switching regulator design, linear regulator design, data conversion, signal conditioning, and high frequency/RF design
  • Contributors include the leading lights in analog design, Robert Dobkin, Jim Williams and Carl Nelson, among others

Readership

Electronics engineers and designers; electronics technicians; engineering students; electronics hobbyists, circuit designers, electrical engineers, instrumentation engineers, or electrical engineering students

Table of Contents

  • Dedication

    Dedication

    Publisher’s Note

    Trademarks

    Acknowledgments

    Introduction

    Why write applications?

    Foreword

    Part 1: Power Management

    Section 1. Power Management Tutorials

    1. Ceramic input capacitors can cause overvoltage transients

    Plug in the wall adapter at your own risk

    Building the Test Circuit

    Turning on the switch

    Testing a portable application

    Input voltage transients with different input elements

    Optimizing Input Capacitors

    Conclusion

    2. Minimizing switching regulator residue in linear regulator outputs: Banishing those accursed spikes

    Introduction

    References

    3. Power conditioning for notebook and palmtop systems

    Introduction

    Battery charging

    Power supplies for palmtop computers

    4. 2-Wire virtual remote sensing for voltage regulators: Clairvoyance marries remote sensing

    Introduction

    “Virtual” remote sensing

    Applications

    VRS linear regulators

    VRS equipped switching regulators

    VRS based isolated switching supplies

    VRS halogen lamp drive circuit

    References

    Section 2. Switching Regulator Design

    5. LT1070 design manual

    Introduction

    Preface

    LT1070 operation

    Pin functions

    Basic switching regulator topologies

    Application circuits

    Negative buck converter

    Negative-to-positive buck-boost converter

    Positive buck converter

    Flyback converter

    Totally isolated converter

    Positive current-boosted buck converter

    Negative current-boosted buck converter

    Negative input/negative output flyback converter

    Positive-to-negative flyback converter

    Voltage-boosted boost converter

    Negative boost converter

    Positive-to-negative buck boost converter

    Current-boosted boost converter

    Forward converter

    Frequency compensation

    External current limiting

    Driving external transistors

    Output rectifying diode

    Input filters

    Efficiency calculations

    Output filters

    Input and output capacitors

    Inductor and transformer basics

    Heat sinking information

    Troubleshooting hints

    Warning

    Subharmonic oscillations

    Inductor/transformer manufacturers

    Core manufacturers

    Bibliography

    6. Switching regulators for poets: A gentle guide for the trepidatious

    Basic flyback regulator

    −48V to 5V telecom flyback regulator

    Fully-isolated telecom flyback regulator

    100W off-line switching regulator

    Switch-controlled motor speed controller

    Switch-controlled peltier 0°C reference

    Acknowledgments

    7. Step-down switching regulators

    Basic step down circuit

    Practical step-down switching regulator

    Dual output step-down regulator

    Negative output regulators

    Current-boosted step-down regulator

    Post regulation-fixed case

    Post regulation-variable case

    Low quiescent current regulators

    Wide range, high power, high voltage regulator

    Regulated sinewave output DC/AC converter

    References

    8. A monolithic switching regulator with 100μV output noise: “Silence is the perfectest herald of joy ...”

    Introduction

    References

    9. Powering complex FPGA-based systems using highly integrated DC/DC μModule regulator systems: Part 1 of 2 Circuit and electrical performance

    Innovation in DC/DC design

    DC/DC μModule Regulators: Complete Systems in an LGA Package

    48A from four parallel DC/DC μModule regulators

    Start-up, soft-start and current sharing

    Conclusion

    10. Powering complex FPGA-based systems using highly integrated DC/DC µModule regulator systems: Part 2 of 2 Thermal performance and layout

    60W by paralleling four DC/DC μModule regulators

    Thermal performance

    Simple copy and paste layout

    Conclusion

    11. Diode turn-on time induced failures in switching regulators: Never Has so Much Trouble Been Had By so Many with so Few Terminals

    Introduction

    Diode turn-on time perspectives

    Detailed measurement scheme

    Diode Testing and Interpreting Results

    References

    Section 3. Linear Regulator Design

    12. Performance verification of low noise, low dropout regulators: Silence of the amps

    Introduction

    Noise and noise testing

    Noise testing considerations

    Instrumentation performance verification

    Regulator noise measurement

    Bypass capacitor (CBYP) influence

    Interpreting comparative results

    References

    Section 4. High Voltage and High Current Applications

    13. Parasitic capacitance effects in step-up transformer design

    14. High efficiency, high density, PolyPhase converters for high current applications

    Introduction

    How do PolyPhase techniques affect circuit performance?

    Design considerations

    Design example: 100A PolyPhase power supply

    Summary

    Section 5. Powering Lasers and Illumination Devices

    15. Ultracompact LCD backlight inverters: A svelte beast cuts high voltage down to size

    Introduction

    References

    16. A thermoelectric cooler temperature controller for fiber optic lasers: Climatic pampering for temperamental lasers

    Introduction

    Temperature Controller Requirements

    Temperature Controller Details

    Thermal Loop Considerations

    Temperature Control Loop Optimization

    Temperature Stability Verification

    Reflected Noise Performance

    References

    17. Current sources for fiber optic lasers: A compendium of pleasant current events

    Introduction

    References

    18. Bias voltage and current sense circuits for avalanche photodiodes: Feeding and reading the APD

    Introduction

    Summary

    References

    Section 6. Automotive and Industrial Power Design

    19. Developments in battery stack voltage measurement: A simple solution to a not so simple problem

    The battery stack problem

    Transformer based sampling voltmeter

    Detailed circuit operation

    Multi-cell version

    Automatic control and calibration

    Firmware description

    Measurement details

    Adding more channels

    References

    Part 2: Data conversion, signal conditioning and high frequency/RF

    Section 1. Data Conversion

    20. Some techniques for direct digitization of transducer outputs

    21. The care and feeding of high performance ADCs: get all the bits you paid for

    Introduction

    An ADC has many “inputs”

    Ground planes and grounding

    Supply bypassing

    Reference bypassing

    Driving the analog input

    Choosing an op amp

    Driving the convert-start input

    Routing the data outputs

    Conclusion

    22. A standards lab grade 20-bit DAC with 0.1ppm/°C drift: The dedicated art of digitizing one part per million

    Introduction

    References

    23. Delta sigma ADC bridge measurement techniques

    Introduction

    Low cost, precision altimeter uses direct digitization

    How Many Bits?

    Increasing Resolution with Amplifiers

    How Much Gain?

    ADC Response to Amplifier Noise

    How Many Bits?

    Faster or More Resolution with the LTC2440

    How Many Bits?

    24. 1ppm settling time measurement for a monolithic 18-bit DAC: When does the last angel stop dancing on a speeding pinhead?

    Introduction

    DAC settling time

    Considerations for measuring DAC settling time

    Sampling based high resolution DAC settling time measurement

    Developing a sampling switch

    Electronic switch equivalents

    Transconductance amplifier based switch equivalent

    DAC settling time measurement method

    Detailed settling time circuitry

    Settling time circuit performance

    Using the sampling-based settling time circuit

    References

    Section 2. Signal Conditioning

    25. Applications for a switched-capacitor instrumentation building block

    Instrumentation amplifier

    Ultrahigh performance instrumentation amplifier

    Lock-in amplifier

    Wide range, digitally controlled, variable gain amplifier

    Precision, linearized platinum RTD signal conditioner

    Relative humidity sensor signal conditioner

    LVDT signal conditioner

    Charge pump F→V and V→F converters

    12-bit A→D converter

    Miscellaneous circuits

    Voltage-controlled current source—grounded source and load

    Current sensing in supply rails

    0.01% analog multiplier

    Inverting a reference

    Low power, 5 V driven, temperature compensated crystal oscillator

    Simple thermometer

    High current, “inductorless,” switching regulator

    26. Application considerations and circuits for a new chopper-stabilized op amp

    Applications

    Standard grade variable voltage reference

    Ultra-precision instrumentation amplifier

    High performance isolation amplifier

    Stabilized, low input capacitance buffer (FET probe)

    Chopper-stabilized comparator

    Stabilized data converter

    Wide range V→F converter

    1Hz to 30MHz V→F converter

    16-bit A/D converter

    Simple remote thermometer

    Output stages

    References

    27. Designing linear circuits for 5V single supply operation

    Linearized RTD signal conditioner

    Linearized output methane detector

    Cold junction compensated thermocouple signal conditioner

    5V powered precision instrumentation amplifier

    5V powered strain gauge signal conditioner

    “Tachless” motor speed controller

    4-20mA current loop transmitter

    Fully isolated limit comparator

    Fully isolated 10-bit A/D converter

    28. Application considerations for an instrumentation lowpass filter

    Description

    Tuning the LTC1062

    LTC1062 clock requirements

    Internal oscillator

    Clock feedthrough

    Single 5V supply operation

    Dynamic range and signal/noise ratio

    Step response and burst response

    LTC1062 shows little aliasing

    Cascading the LTC1062

    Using the LTC1062 to create a notch

    Comments on capacitor types

    Clock circuits

    Acknowledgement

    29. Micropower circuits for signal conditioning

    Platinum RTD signal conditioner

    Thermocouple signal conditioner

    Sampled strain gauge signal conditioner

    Strobed operation strain gauge bridge signal conditioner

    Thermistor signal conditioner for current loop application

    Microampere drain wall thermostat

    Freezer alarm

    12-Bit A/D converter

    10-Bit, 100μA A/D converter

    20μs sample-hold

    10kHz voltage-to-frequency converter

    1MHz voltage-to-frequency converter

    Switching regulator

    Post regulated micropower switching regulator

    30. Thermocouple measurement

    Introduction

    Thermocouples in perspective

    Signal conditioning issues

    Cold junction compensation

    Amplifier selection

    Additional circuit considerations

    Differential thermocouple amplifiers

    Isolated thermocouple amplifiers

    Digital output thermocouple isolator

    Linearization techniques

    References

    31. Take the mystery out of the switched-capacitor filter: The system designer’s filter compendium

    Introduction

    Circuit board layout considerations

    Power supplies

    Input considerations

    Filter response

    Filter sensitivity

    Output considerations

    Clock circuitry

    Conclusions

    Bibliography

    32. Bridge circuits: Marrying gain and balance

    Resistance bridges

    Bridge output amplifiers

    DC bridge circuit applications

    Common mode suppression techniques

    Single supply common mode suppression circuits

    Switched-capacitor based instrumentation amplifiers

    Optically coupled switched-capacitor instrumentation amplifier

    Platinum RTD resistance bridge circuits

    Digitally corrected platinum resistance bridge

    Thermistor bridge

    Low power bridge circuits

    Strobed power bridge drive

    Sampled output bridge signal conditioner

    Continuous output sampled bridge signal conditioner

    High resolution continuous output sampled bridge signal conditioner

    AC driven bridge/synchronous demodulator

    AC driven bridge for level transduction

    Time domain bridge

    Bridge oscillator—square wave output

    Quartz stabilized bridge oscillator

    Sine wave output quartz stabilized bridge oscillator

    Wien bridge-based oscillators

    Diode bridge-based 2.5MHz precision rectifier/AC voltmeter

    References

    33. High speed amplifier techniques: A designer’s companion for wideband circuitry

    Preface

    Introduction

    Perspectives on high speed design

    Mr. Murphy’s gallery of high speed amplifier problems

    Tutorial section

    Applications Section I — Amplifiers

    Applications Section II — Oscillators

    Applications section III — Data conversion

    APPLICATIONS SECTION IV — MISCELLANEOUS CIRCUITS

    References

    34. A seven-nanosecond comparator for single supply operation: Guidance for putting civilized speed to work

    Introduction

    The LT1394 — an overview

    Tutorial section

    Applications

    References

    35. Understanding and applying voltage references

    Essential features

    Reference pitfalls

    Reference applications

    Conclusion

    For further reading

    36. Instrumentation applications for a monolithic oscillator: A clock for all reasons

    Introduction

    References

    37. Slew rate verification for wideband amplifiers: The taming of the slew

    Introduction

    References

    38. Instrumentation circuitry using RMS-to-DC converters: RMS converters rectify average results

    Introduction

    References

    39. 775 nanovolt noise measurement for a low noise voltage reference: Quantifying silence

    Introduction

    Noise measurement

    Noise measurement circuit performance

    References

    Section 3. High Frequency/RF Design

    40. LT5528 WCDMA ACPR, AltCPR and noise measurements

    Introduction

    41. Measuring phase and delay errors accurately in I/Q modulators

    Introduction

    Measurements

    Applying the method

    Conclusion

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 960
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Newnes 2011
  • Published: August 30, 2011
  • Imprint: Newnes
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123851864
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123851857

About the Editors

Bob Dobkin

Bob Dobkin
Bob Dobkin is a founder and Chief Technical Officer of Linear Technology Corporation. Prior to 1999, he was responsible for all new product development at Linear. Before founding Linear Technology in 1981, Dobkin was Director of Advanced Circuit Development at National Semiconductor for eleven years. He has been intimately involved in the development of high performance linear integrated circuits for over 30 years and has generated many industry standard circuits. Dobkin holds over 100 patents pertaining to linear ICs and has authored over 50 articles and papers. He attended the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Affiliations and Expertise

Linear Technology Corporation, Milpitas, CA, USA

Jim Williams

Jim Williams, who worked for Linear Technology for nearly three decades, was a talented and prolific circuit designer and author in the field of analog electronics until his untimely passing in 2011. In nearly 30 years with Linear, he had the unique role of staff scientist with interests spanning product definition, development and support. Before joining Linear Technology in 1982, Williams worked in National Semiconductor’s Linear Integrated Circuits Group for three years. Williams was a legendary circuit designer, problem solver, mentor and writer with writings published as Linear application notes and EDN magazine articles. In addition, he was writer/editor of four books. Williams was named Innovator of the Year by EDN magazine in 1992, elected to Electronic Design Hall of Fame in 2002, and was honored posthumously by EDN and EE Times in 2012 as the first recipient of the Jim Williams Contributor of the Year Award.

Affiliations and Expertise

Linear Technology Corporation, Milpitas, California

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