An Introduction to Turbulence and its Measurement

An Introduction to Turbulence and its Measurement

Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics Series

1st Edition - January 1, 1971

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  • Author: P Bradshaw
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483140841

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An Introduction to Turbulence and Its Measurement is an introductory text on turbulence and its measurement. It combines the physics of turbulence with measurement techniques and covers topics ranging from measurable quantities and their physical significance to the analysis of fluctuating signals, temperature and concentration measurements, and the hot-wire anemometer. Examples of turbulent flows are presented. This book is comprised of eight chapters and begins with an overview of the physics of turbulence, paying particular attention to Newton's second law of motion, the Newtonian viscous fluid, and equations of motion. After a chapter devoted to measurable quantities, the discussion turns to some examples of turbulent flows, including turbulence behind a grid of bars, Couette flow, atmospheric and oceanic turbulence, and heat and mass transfer. The next chapter describes measurement techniques using hot wires, films, and thermistors, as well as Doppler-shift anemometers; glow-discharge or corona-discharge anemometers; pulsed-wire anemometer; and steady-flow techniques for fluctuation measurement. This monograph is intended for post-graduate students of aeronautics and fluid mechanics, but should also be readily understandable to those with a good general background in engineering fluid dynamics.

Table of Contents

  • Preface



    Chapter 1. The Physics of Turbulence

    1.1. "Control-Volume" Analysis for the Equations of Motion

    1.2. Newton's Second Law of Motion

    1.3. The Newtonian Viscous Fluid

    1.4. Possible Solutions of the Equations of Motion

    1.5. The Reynolds Stresses

    1.6. Vortex Stretching

    1.7. Compressible Flow

    1.8. Flow-Visualization Experiments

    Chapter 2. Measurable Quantities and Their Physical Significance

    2.1. Statistics of Random Processes

    2.2. Turbulent Energy

    2.3. Spatial Correlations

    2.4. Time Correlations

    2.5. Frequency Spectra

    2.6. Wave Number Spectra

    2.7. Space-Time Correlations

    2.8. Cross-Correlations and Cross-Spectra

    2.9. Higher-Order Correlations and Spectra

    2.10. Probability Distributions and Intermittency

    Chapter 3. Examples of Turbulent Flows

    3.1. Turbulence behind a Grid of Bars

    3.2. "Infinite" Shear Flow

    3.3. Couette Flow

    3.4. Two-Dimensional Boundary Layers

    3.5. Three-Dimensional Boundary Layers

    3.6. Duct Flows

    3.7. Jets, Wakes and Plumes

    3.8. Atmospheric and Oceanic Turbulence

    3.9. Separated Flows

    3.10. Heat and Mass Transfer

    3.11. Turbulence in Non-Newtonian Fluids

    Chapter 4. Measurement Techniques

    4.1. Hot Wires, Films and Thermistors

    4.2. Constant-Current and Constant-Temperature Operation

    4.3. Doppler-Shift Anemometers

    4.4. Glow-Discharge or Corona-Discharge Anemometers

    4.5. The Pulsed-Wire Anemometer

    4.6. Particle Visualization

    4.7. Use of Steady-Flow Techniques for Fluctuation Measurement

    4.8. Measurement of Surface Pressure Fluctuations

    4.9. Specialized Techniques of Turbulence Measurement

    Chapter 5. The Hot-Wire Anemometer

    5.1. Heat Transfer

    5.2. The Effect of Fluid Temperature

    5.3. The Effect of Flow Direction

    5.4. Contamination of Probes

    5.5. Probe Design and Manufacture

    5.6. Spatial Resolution

    5.7. Frequency Response

    Chapter 6. Analysis of Fluctuating Signals

    6.1. Analogue Computing Elements

    6.2. Input and Output Impedance, and Frequency Response

    6.3. Noise and Hum

    6.4. Averaging Time

    6.5. Automatic Recording of Time-Average Quantities

    6.6. Digital Recording of Fluctuating Signals

    Chapter 7. Temperature and Concentration Measurements

    7.1. Separation of Velocity and Temperature Fluctuations

    7.2. High-Speed Flow

    7.3. Probes for Supersonic Flow

    7.4. Sensitivity of a Hot Wire to Velocity and Total-Temperature Fluctuations

    7.5. Small Temperature Differences

    7.6. Measurements in the Presence of Concentration Differences

    Chapter 8. Summary of Practical Details

    8.1. Choice of Anemometer

    8.2. Choice of Probe

    8.3. Calibration

    8.4. Errors

    8.5. Arrangements of Apparatus

    8.6. Distortion of the Flow by the Presence of the Probe

    Appendix 1. The Equations of Motion

    Appendix 2. Turbulence Research



    Further Reading


Product details

  • No. of pages: 238
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 2013
  • Published: January 1, 1971
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483140841

About the Author

P Bradshaw

About the Editor

W. A. Woods

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