An Introduction To Solar Radiation

An Introduction To Solar Radiation

1st Edition - January 1, 1983

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  • Author: Muhammad Iqbal
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323151818

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Description

An Introduction to Solar Radiation is an introductory text on solar radiation, with emphasis on the methods of calculation for determining the amount of solar radiation incident on a surface on the earth. Topics covered include the astronomical relationship between the sun and the earth; thermal radiation; the solar constant and its spectral distribution; and extraterrestrial solar irradiation. This book is comprised of 12 chapters and begins with an overview of the trigonometric relationships between the sun-earth line and the position of an inclined surface, followed by a discussion on the characteristics of blackbody radiation. The next chapter focuses on the solar constant and its spectral distribution, paying particular attention to extraterrestrial solar spectral irradiance and the sun's blackbody temperature. Subsequent chapters explore extraterrestrial and radiation incident on inclined planes; the optics of a cloudless-sky atmosphere; solar spectral radiation and total (broadband) radiation under cloudless skies; and solar radiation arriving at horizontal surfaces on the earth through cloudy skies. The ground albedo and its spectral and angular variation are also described, along with insolation on inclined surfaces. The last chapter is devoted to instruments for measuring solar radiation, including pyrheliometers and pyranometers. This monograph will serve as a useful guide for energy analysts, designers of thermal devices, architects and engineers, agronomists, and hydrologists as well as senior graduate students.

Table of Contents


  • Preface

    Acknowledgments

    Chapter 1 Sun-Earth Astronomical Relationship

    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 Sun-Earth Distance r

    1.3 Solar Declination δ

    1.4 Equation of Time Et

    1.5 Position of the Sun Relative to Horizontal Surfaces

    1.6 Position of the Sun Relative to Inclined Surfaces

    1.7 Further Reading

    Nomenclature

    References

    Chapter 2 Thermal Radiation

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Blackbody Radiation

    2.3 Blackbody Radiation in a Wavelength Interval

    2.4 Angular Dependence of Radiation

    2.5 Real-Body Properties

    2.6 Definitions

    2.7 Further Reading

    Nomenclature

    References

    Chapter 3 The Solar Constant and Its Spectral Distribution

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 The Sun

    3.3 Extraterrestrial Solar Spectral Irradiance

    3.4 The Solar Constant

    3.5 Blackbody Temperature of the Sun

    3.6 Further Reading

    Nomenclature

    References

    Chapter 4 Extraterrestrial Solar Irradiation

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Extraterrestrial Irradiation on a Horizontal Surface

    4.3 Radiation on Inclined Planes

    4.4 Calculation of ṙb, rb, ṝb, Rb, and Ṝb

    4.5 Further Reading

    Nomenclature

    References

    Chapter 5 A Cloudless-Sky Atmosphere and Its Optics

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 The Earth's Atmosphere

    5.3 Clean Dry Air

    5.4 Water Vapor

    5.5 Aerosols

    5.6 Relative Optical Path Length, Relative Optical Mass m

    5.7 Relative Optical Air Mass ma

    5.8 Relative Optical Water-Vapor Mass mw

    5.9 Relative Optical Ozone Mass mo

    5.10 Relative Optical Aerosol Mass md

    5.11 Further Reading

    Nomenclature

    References

    Chapter 6 Solar Spectral Radiation under Cloudless Skies

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Attenuation of Direct Solar Radiation: Basic Formulation

    6.3 Scattering of Direct Solar Radiation

    6.4 Rayleigh Scattering of Air Molecules

    6.5 Mie Scattering of Water Vapor and Dust Particles

    6.6 Ångström's Turbidity Formula for All Aerosols

    6.7 Direct Transmittance due to Continuum Attenuation

    6.8 Absorption of Direct Solar Radiation by Gases

    6.9 Absorbers in the Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrum

    6.10 Absorbers in the Infrared Spectrum

    6.11 Transmittances of Molecular Absorbers

    6.12 Transmittance of Ozone

    6.13 Transmittances of Uniformly Mixed Gases and Water Vapor

    6.14 Direct Spectral Irradiance on the Ground

    6.15 Origins of Diffuse Spectral Radiation

    6.16 Rayleigh-Scattered Spectral Diffuse Irradiance

    6.17 Aerosol-Scattered Spectral Diffuse Irradiance

    6.18 Atmospheric Albedo

    6.19 Multiply Reflected Spectral Diffuse Irradiance

    6.20 Diffuse Spectral Irradiance on the Ground

    6.21 Global Spectral Irradiance on the Ground

    6.22 Further Reading

    6.23 Historical Notes

    Nomenclature

    References

    Chapter 7 Total (Broadband) Radiation under Cloudless Skies

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Spectral Integration Model

    7.3 Parameterization Method

    7.4 Parameterization Model A

    7.5 Parameterization Model B

    7.6 Parameterization Model C

    7.7 Comparison of the Parameterization Models

    7.8 The ASHRAE Algorithm and Its Improvement

    7.9 Further Reading

    Nomenclature

    References

    Chapter 8 Solar Radiation under Cloudy Skies

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Hourly Global I, Diffuse Id, and Beam Ib Radiation on a Horizontal Surface

    8.3 Daily Global H, Diffuse Hd, and Beam Hb Radiation on a Horizontal Surface

    8.4 The Availability of Data

    8.5 Correlation of Average Daily Global Radiation with Hours of Sunshine

    8.6 Correlation of Average Daily Global Radiation with Cloud Cover

    8.7 Estimation of the Monthly Average Hourly Global Radiation on a Horizontal Surface

    8.8 Statistical Distribution of the Daily and Hourly Global Radiation on a Horizontal Surface

    8.9 Estimation of the Daily Diffuse Radiation on a Horizontal Surface

    8.10 Estimation of the Monthly Average Daily Diffuse Radiation on a Horizontal Surface

    8.11 Estimation of the Monthly Average Hourly Diffuse Radiation on a Horizontal Surface

    8.12 Estimation of the Hourly Diffuse Radiation on a Horizontal Surface

    8.13 Further Reading

    Nomenclature

    References

    Chapter 9 Ground Albedo

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Elementary Definitions

    9.3 Spectral Albedo and the Effect of Solar Height

    9.4 The Overall Albedo

    Nomenclature

    References

    Chapter 10 Configuration Factors

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Mathematical Formulation

    10.3 Unit-Sphere Method of Evaluating Configuration Factors

    10.4 Configuration Factors between an Inclined Flat-Plate Collector and the Sky and between the Collector and the Ground

    Nomenclature

    References

    Chapter 11 Solar Radiation Incident on Tilted Planes on the Earth's Surface

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Beam Radiation Incident on an Inclined Surface

    11.3 Ground-Reflected Radiation Incident on an Inclined Plane

    11.4 Angular Distribution of Sky Diffuse Radiation Intensity

    11.5 Sky Diffuse Radiation Incident on an Inclined Plane

    11.6 Global Irradiation on an Inclined Plane

    11.7 Ratio of Global Radiation on a Tilted Surface to That on a Horizontal Surface

    11.8 Further Reading

    Nomenclature

    References

    Chapter 12 Solar Radiation Measuring Instruments

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Radiation Sensors

    12.3 Measurement of Direct Irradiance: Pyrheliometers

    12.4 Pyrheliometric Scales

    12.5 Pyrheliometer Aperture Angle

    12.6 Pyrheliometer Classification

    12.7 Measurement of Global Irradiance: Pyranometers

    12.8 Pyranometer Characteristics

    12.9 Pyranometer Calibration

    12.10 Pyranometer Classification

    12.11 Measurement of Diffuse Irradiance: Pyranometer with Shadow Band

    12.12 Optical Filters

    12.13 Measurement of Albedo

    12.14 Measurement of Bright Sunshine Duration

    12.15 Further Reading

    Nomenclature

    References

    Appendix A List of Basic Constants and Dimensions

    Appendix B Conversion Factors

    Appendix C Spectral Distribution of the Extraterrestrial Solar Irradiance

    Appendix D Methods of Statistical Tests

    D.1 Mean Bias Error

    D.2 Root Mean Square Error

    D.3 Correlation Coefficient

    D.4 Time of Day Bias

    D.5 Tests of Models

    References

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 408
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1983
  • Published: January 1, 1983
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323151818

About the Author

Muhammad Iqbal

Muhammad Iqbal joined Jamia Hamdard (Hamdard University), New Delhi, as Professor of Botany and was Head of the Botany Department, Dean of Science Faculty, and Vice-Chancellor of Jamia Hamdard. Specializing in the Developmental, Environmental and Medicinal Botany, he has produced over 425 publications, His research interests include radial growth in vascular plants, plant-pollution interaction, heavy metals influence on plants, stress crop physiology, phytoremediation and traditional herbal medicine. He was President of the Academy of Environmental Biology (2006-2009), Vice-President of the Indian Botanical Society (2003-2004), and International Society of Environmental Botanists (2013-18). He worked as Visiting Scientist at South Korea and Poland under the Scientists Exchange Program of Indian National Science Academy and as a Visiting Professor at King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia He is an elected Fellow of 8 national and international scientific organizations, including the Linnean Society of London (FLS) and the National Academy of Sciences, India (FNASc).

Affiliations and Expertise

Jamia Hamdard University, New Delhi, India

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