An Introduction To Solar Radiation - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123737502, 9780323151818

An Introduction To Solar Radiation

1st Edition

Authors: Muhammad Iqbal
eBook ISBN: 9780323151818
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th September 1983
Page Count: 408
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Description

An Introduction to Solar Radiation is an introductory text on solar radiation, with emphasis on the methods of calculation for determining the amount of solar radiation incident on a surface on the earth. Topics covered include the astronomical relationship between the sun and the earth; thermal radiation; the solar constant and its spectral distribution; and extraterrestrial solar irradiation. This book is comprised of 12 chapters and begins with an overview of the trigonometric relationships between the sun-earth line and the position of an inclined surface, followed by a discussion on the characteristics of blackbody radiation. The next chapter focuses on the solar constant and its spectral distribution, paying particular attention to extraterrestrial solar spectral irradiance and the sun's blackbody temperature. Subsequent chapters explore extraterrestrial and radiation incident on inclined planes; the optics of a cloudless-sky atmosphere; solar spectral radiation and total (broadband) radiation under cloudless skies; and solar radiation arriving at horizontal surfaces on the earth through cloudy skies. The ground albedo and its spectral and angular variation are also described, along with insolation on inclined surfaces. The last chapter is devoted to instruments for measuring solar radiation, including pyrheliometers and pyranometers. This monograph will serve as a useful guide for energy analysts, designers of thermal devices, architects and engineers, agronomists, and hydrologists as well as senior graduate students.

Table of Contents


Preface

Acknowledgments

Chapter 1 Sun-Earth Astronomical Relationship

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Sun-Earth Distance r

1.3 Solar Declination δ

1.4 Equation of Time Et

1.5 Position of the Sun Relative to Horizontal Surfaces

1.6 Position of the Sun Relative to Inclined Surfaces

1.7 Further Reading

Nomenclature

References

Chapter 2 Thermal Radiation

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Blackbody Radiation

2.3 Blackbody Radiation in a Wavelength Interval

2.4 Angular Dependence of Radiation

2.5 Real-Body Properties

2.6 Definitions

2.7 Further Reading

Nomenclature

References

Chapter 3 The Solar Constant and Its Spectral Distribution

3.1 Introduction

3.2 The Sun

3.3 Extraterrestrial Solar Spectral Irradiance

3.4 The Solar Constant

3.5 Blackbody Temperature of the Sun

3.6 Further Reading

Nomenclature

References

Chapter 4 Extraterrestrial Solar Irradiation

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Extraterrestrial Irradiation on a Horizontal Surface

4.3 Radiation on Inclined Planes

4.4 Calculation of ṙb, rb, ṝb, Rb, and Ṝb

4.5 Further Reading

Nomenclature

References

Chapter 5 A Cloudless-Sky Atmosphere and Its Optics

5.1 Introduction

5.2 The Earth's Atmosphere

5.3 Clean Dry Air

5.4 Water Vapor

5.5 Aerosols

5.6 Relative Optical Path Length, Relative Optical Mass m

5.7 Relative Optical Air Mass ma

5.8 Relative Optical Water-Vapor Mass mw

5.9 Relative Optical Ozone Mass mo

5.10 Relative Optical Aerosol Mass md

5.11 Further Reading

Nomenclature

References

Chapter 6 Solar Spectral Radiation under Cloudless Skies

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Attenuation of Direct Solar Radiation: Basic Formulation

6.3 Scattering of Direct Solar Radiation

6.4 Rayleigh Scattering of Air Molecules

6.5 Mie Scattering of Water Vapor and Dust Particles

6.6 Ångström's Turbidity Formula for All Aerosols

6.7 Direct Transmittance due to Continuum Attenuation

6.8 Absorption of Direct Solar Radiation by Gases

6.9 Absorbers in the Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrum

6.10 Absorbers in the Infrared Spectrum

6.11 Transmittances of Molecular Absorbers

6.12 Transmittance of Ozone

6.13 Transmittances of Uniformly Mixed Gases and Water Vapor

6.14 Direct Spectral Irradiance on the Ground

6.15 Origins of Diffuse Spectral Radiation

6.16 Rayleigh-Scattered Spectral Diffuse Irradiance

6.17 Aerosol-Scattered Spectral Diffuse Irradiance

6.18 Atmospheric Albedo

6.19 Multiply Reflected Spectral Diffuse Irradiance

6.20 Diffuse Spectral Irradiance on the Ground

6.21 Global Spectral Irradiance on the Ground

6.22 Further Reading

6.23 Historical Notes

Nomenclature

References

Chapter 7 Total (Broadband) Radiation under Cloudless Skies

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Spectral Integration Model

7.3 Parameterization Method

7.4 Parameterization Model A

7.5 Parameterization Model B

7.6 Parameterization Model C

7.7 Comparison of the Parameterization Models

7.8 The ASHRAE Algorithm and Its Improvement

7.9 Further Reading

Nomenclature

References

Chapter 8 Solar Radiation under Cloudy Skies

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Hourly Global I, Diffuse Id, and Beam Ib Radiation on a Horizontal Surface

8.3 Daily Global H, Diffuse Hd, and Beam Hb Radiation on a Horizontal Surface

8.4 The Availability of Data

8.5 Correlation of Average Daily Global Radiation with Hours of Sunshine

8.6 Correlation of Average Daily Global Radiation with Cloud Cover

8.7 Estimation of the Monthly Average Hourly Global Radiation on a Horizontal Surface

8.8 Statistical Distribution of the Daily and Hourly Global Radiation on a Horizontal Surface

8.9 Estimation of the Daily Diffuse Radiation on a Horizontal Surface

8.10 Estimation of the Monthly Average Daily Diffuse Radiation on a Horizontal Surface

8.11 Estimation of the Monthly Average Hourly Diffuse Radiation on a Horizontal Surface

8.12 Estimation of the Hourly Diffuse Radiation on a Horizontal Surface

8.13 Further Reading

Nomenclature

References

Chapter 9 Ground Albedo

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Elementary Definitions

9.3 Spectral Albedo and the Effect of Solar Height

9.4 The Overall Albedo

Nomenclature

References

Chapter 10 Configuration Factors

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Mathematical Formulation

10.3 Unit-Sphere Method of Evaluating Configuration Factors

10.4 Configuration Factors between an Inclined Flat-Plate Collector and the Sky and between the Collector and the Ground

Nomenclature

References

Chapter 11 Solar Radiation Incident on Tilted Planes on the Earth's Surface

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Beam Radiation Incident on an Inclined Surface

11.3 Ground-Reflected Radiation Incident on an Inclined Plane

11.4 Angular Distribution of Sky Diffuse Radiation Intensity

11.5 Sky Diffuse Radiation Incident on an Inclined Plane

11.6 Global Irradiation on an Inclined Plane

11.7 Ratio of Global Radiation on a Tilted Surface to That on a Horizontal Surface

11.8 Further Reading

Nomenclature

References

Chapter 12 Solar Radiation Measuring Instruments

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Radiation Sensors

12.3 Measurement of Direct Irradiance: Pyrheliometers

12.4 Pyrheliometric Scales

12.5 Pyrheliometer Aperture Angle

12.6 Pyrheliometer Classification

12.7 Measurement of Global Irradiance: Pyranometers

12.8 Pyranometer Characteristics

12.9 Pyranometer Calibration

12.10 Pyranometer Classification

12.11 Measurement of Diffuse Irradiance: Pyranometer with Shadow Band

12.12 Optical Filters

12.13 Measurement of Albedo

12.14 Measurement of Bright Sunshine Duration

12.15 Further Reading

Nomenclature

References

Appendix A List of Basic Constants and Dimensions

Appendix B Conversion Factors

Appendix C Spectral Distribution of the Extraterrestrial Solar Irradiance

Appendix D Methods of Statistical Tests

D.1 Mean Bias Error

D.2 Root Mean Square Error

D.3 Correlation Coefficient

D.4 Time of Day Bias

D.5 Tests of Models

References

Index

Details

No. of pages:
408
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1983
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323151818

About the Author

Muhammad Iqbal