An Introduction to Biomedical Instrumentation - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780080187556, 9781483187525

An Introduction to Biomedical Instrumentation

2nd Edition

Pergamon International Library of Science, Technology, Engineering and Social Studies

Authors: D. J. Dewhurst
eBook ISBN: 9781483187525
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1976
Page Count: 276
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Description

An Introduction to Biomedical Instrumentation presents a course of study and applications covering the basic principles of medical and biological instrumentation, as well as the typical features of its design and construction. The book aims to aid not only the cognitive domain of the readers, but also their psychomotor domain as well. Aside from the seminar topics provided, which are divided into 27 chapters, the book complements these topics with practical applications of the discussions. Figures and mathematical formulas are also given. Major topics discussed include the construction, handling, and utilization of the instruments; current, voltage, resistance, and meters; diodes and transistors; power supply; and storage and processing of data. The text will be invaluable to medical electronics students who need a reference material to help them learn how to use competently and confidently the equipment that are important in their field.

Table of Contents


Foreword

1 Instrument Construction

Seminar

Human Engineering in Instrument Design

Physical Construction

Heat Sinks

Interconnection of Instruments

Soldering

Failures in Equipment

Practical

Assembly of Leads, Assembly of Components on Insulating Board and Printed Circuit

Sheet Metal Working

2 Current, Voltage, and Resistance

Seminar

Definitions

Resistors, Noise in Resistors, Combinations of Resistors

Power Sources for Biomedical Equipment

Practical

Ohm's Law, Varying e.m.f. and Resistance

Power Dissipation

3 Meters

Seminar

Basic Moving-Coil Meter; Use as Ammeter, Voltmeter, Ohmmeter

Multimeters

Insertion Errors

Meter Accuracy

Practical

Construction of Simple Multimeter

Calibration and Testing

Resistors in Series and Parallel

4 The Potentiometer and Wheatstone Bridge

Seminar

Potentiometer

Thermocouple Thermometry

Thermoelectric Cooling Elements

Wheatstone Bridge

Resistance Thermometry

Thermistor Thermometer

Practical

5 Alternating Currents

Seminar

Nature of Alternating e.m.f.; Method of Generation

Peak and r.m.s. Voltages and Currents

Power

Measurement of Alternating Voltage and Current

Practical

Output of Simple a.c. Generator

Rectification

Calibration of a.c. Meter

6 Capacitance

Seminar

Constant Voltage and Constant Current Sources

Storage of Energy in a Capacitor; Capacitance

Permittivity of Free Space; Electric Field

Dielectric Constant and Dielectric Strength

Energy Stored

Commercial Capacitors

Charge and Discharge of Capacitor-Resistor Combination

Leakage Testers

Alternating Voltage Applied to a Capacitor, and to a Capacitor and Resistor in Series; Impedance

Measurement of Capacitance

Practical

Plot of Charge and Discharge Curve of Capacitor-Resistor Combination; Estimation of Time Constant

A.C. Applied to Capacitor

Capacitance Bridge

7 Inductance

Seminar

Storage of Energy in an Inductor; Inductance

Permeability of Free Space; Magnetic Field

Stored Energy

Commercial Inductors

Charge and Discharge of Inductor-Resistor Combination

Alternating Current Passed through an Inductor, and through an Inductor and Resistor in Series

Measurement of Inductance

Mutual Inductance; The Transformer

Magnetizing Current, Transformer Losses

Power Transformers, Failures

Resistive, Capacitive and Inductive Circuit Elements; Duals

Resistance, Inductance and Capacitance in Series; Resonance

Electromagnetic Radiation

Practical

Energy Storage in an Inductor

Impedance Measurement

Transformer

Power Transformer; Losses

Broadcast Band Resonant Circuit

8 Diodes and Transistors

Seminar

Semiconductors

The PN Junction; The Bipolar Transistor

Transfer Characteristic

Commercial Transistors

Voltage Amplifier

Reproducibility

Coupling of Amplifier Stages

Practical

Diode Characteristic

Base-To-Emitter Diode Characteristic

ß of NPN Transistor

Transistor Amplifier

Simple Broadcast Receiver

9 Field Effect Transistors

Seminar

Field Effect Transistor

Junction FET; Characteristics

Insulated Gate FET

Use of FETs; FET Amplifier, FET Gate

Practical

FET Characteristic

FET Amplifier

10 Power Supplies

Seminar

Reliability and Safety

Types of Rectifier Circuit

Decoupling

Power Supply Performance

Regulation; Zener Diode Regulator

Principle of Series Regulator

Practical Series Regulator

Commercial Regulator Packages

Practical

Construction of Regulated Supply

Unregulated Supply Performance, Addition of Regulator

Testing

11 Operational Amplifiers

Seminar

Operational Amplifiers

Inverting Amplifier

Commercial Operational Amplifiers

Frequency Response and Slew-Rate

Summing Amplifier, Non-Inverting Amplifier

Difference Amplifier

Integrator

Practical

Operational Amplifier Card; Use as Unity Gain Amplifier, X10 Amplifier, Summing Amplifier, Non-Inverting Amplifier, Difference Amplifier, Integrator

12 Frequency Response and Filters

Seminar

Need for Filtering

Frequency Response of Ideal Recording System

Single RC Low-Pass Filter

Single RC High-Pass Filter; Practical High-Pass Filter

Decibels

Transient Response of Simple Low-Pass and High-Pass Filters

Application of Filter Concept

Typical Biological Amplifier

Frequency Range of Biological Signals

Practical

Response of Simple Low and High-Pass Filters

Transient Response of Filters

Response of Typical Electrocardiograph

Active Low-Pass Filter Performance

13 The Cathode Ray Tube

Seminar

Cathode Ray Oscilloscope

The Cathode Ray Tube

Phosphors

Voltage Supplies

Magnetic Shielding

Deflection Sensitivity

Magnetic Deflection

Practical

Construction of Oscilloscope; Power Supplies, Deflection Sensitivity of CRT

14 Oscilloscope Amplifiers

Seminar

Requirements for Amplifiers

The Balanced Amplifier

Practical Circuits for Amplifiers

Source Follower

Y Input Attenuator

Practical

Source Follower

Construction of X and Y Amplifiers for Oscilloscope; Testing

15 Time Base Generation

Seminar

Function of a Time Base

Generation of Sawtooth Waveform

Practical Time Base

Practical

Assembly of Time Base Circuit; Testing

16 Pulse Generation—The Astable Multivibrator

Seminar

Requirements for Pulse Generation

The Transistor as a Switch

The Astable Multivibrator

Differentiation of Output Pulse

Practical

Construction of Astable Multivibrator Card

17 Pulse Generation—The Monostable Multivibrator and Schmitt Trigger

Seminar

Applications of Monostable Multivibrator; Basic Monostable Multivibrator

Triggering

Monostable Multivibrator as Time Base Switch, as Pulse Delay Generator

Schmitt Trigger, Use in Time Base Circuit

Practical

Assembly of Monostable Multivibrator; Testing

Assembly of Schmitt Trigger; Testing

Testing of Complete Time Base

18 Optoelectronics

Seminar

Scope of Optoelectronics

Units Used in Photometry

Incandescent Lamp Sources; Light Emitting Diodes

Photocells; Photo-Transistor, Photo-Diode, Photo-Multiplier

Light Pipes, Fiber Optics

Photo-Isolators

Isolator for Oscilloscope Beam Switching

Practical

Construction of Optoelectronic Isolator for Oscilloscope Beam Switching

19 Binary Logic—Gates

Seminar

Binary Logic

Elements of Boolean Algebra

Diode Logic, Diode-Transistor Logic, Transistor-Transistor Logic

Standard Symbols

Logic Laboratory Unit

Practical

Exercises in Boolean Algebra; Use of Logic Laboratory Unit

20 Binary Logic—Data Storage and Counting

Seminar

Need for Data Storage

The Bistable Multivibrator

Gated Flip-Flops

RS and JK Flip-Flops

Flip-Flops as Frequency Divider

Binary Number System; Binary Counter

Binary Coded Decimal Counting

BCD to Decimal Conversion

Decimal Displays

Data Transfer between Registers

TTL Astable and Monostable Multivibrators, Schmitt Triggers

Medium and Large Scale Integration

Details of Logic Laboratory Unit

Practical

Use of JK Flip-Flop

Binary Counter, BCD Counter

Data Transfer Methods

21 Measurement of Radioactivity

Seminar

Detection of Radiation

Rules for a Radio-Chemical Laboratory

Geiger-Muller Counter

Background

Equipment for Geiger Counting; Diode Pump Ratemeter

Simple Geiger Counter

Scintillation Counter

Discriminator and Pulse Height Analyzer

Statistics of Counting

Practical

Construction and Testing of Simple Geiger Counter

Sample Counting, Check of Statistics

22 Recording from Living Tissue: Stimulation of Tissue

Seminar

Recording from Tissue

Electrode Systems

Recording from a Volume of Tissue

Rejection of External Interference

Rejection of in-Phase Interference

Practical ECG Amplifier

Common Mode Rejection Ratio

Tissue Stimulation; Pulse Waveforms

Practical

Testing of Reversible (Silver Chloride) and Irreversible (Stainless Steel) Electrodes

ECG Electrodes

Measurement of Patient Interference Voltages

Construction of Biological Preamplifier

23 Electrical Safety

Seminar

Need for Precautions

Macro- and Micro-Shock; Safe Current Limits

Electrical Wiring in Buildings

Possibility of Electrocution

Macroshock Hazards and Protection

Isolating Transformer, Core Balance Relay

Virtual Patient Earth, Macro-Shock Protected ECG Amplifier

Microshock Hazards and Protection; Equipotential Area

Tests for Microshock Protection

Isolated Preamplifier ECG

Defibrillators

Practical

Acceptance Tests for Electrocardiograph, Defibrillator

24 Regulated Systems

Seminar

Behavior of Unregulated Water Bath; Heating Curve

Regulated Bath; on-off Control, Oscillation about Desired Temperature

Proportional Control, Non-Linear Systems

General form of Regulated Systems

Practical

Behavior of Unregulated Water Bath

Regulated Systems with Human Operator Included

Regulated Water Bath With on-off Control

25 Transducers

Seminar

Transducers

Displacement Transducers; Potentiometer, LVDT, DCDT, Photoelectric, Digital, Shaft Encoder

Velocity Transducers; By Computation, Electromagnetic

Electromagnetic Flowmeters, Doppler Flowmeters

Resistance Flowmeters

Force Transducers; Resistance Strain Gauge, Unbonded and Bonded

Proving Ring and Design Equations

Piezoelectric Strain Gauge

Resonance in Force Transducers

Accelerometers; Principle, Piezoelectric, Displacement

Pressure Measurement

Practical

Construction of LVDT, Balanced Demodulator

Moiré Gratings

Frequency Response of Arterial Manometer and Connecting Catheter or Needle

26 Some Biological Analytical Methods

Seminar

Ionic Composition of Tissue Fluids; Sodium and Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium and Trace Ions

Chloride

Oxygen and CO2 in Solution

Gas Analysis for Oxygen, CO2, Helium, Nitrogen

Ion-Sensitive Electrodes

Practical

Experiments Based on the Methods Described above

27 Storage and Processing of Data

Seminar

Transmission of Data; Quantity of Information

Human Capability

Data Storage Systems, Irretrievable and Retrievable

Pen Recorders, Potentiometric Recorders, Incremental Recorders

Photographic Recording

Storage Oscilloscopes, Rolling Displays

Magnetic Tape; Analogue Storage

Magnetic Core Memory; Analogue-to-Digital Conversion

Buffer Registers

Magnetic Tape; Digital Storage

Punched Paper Tape

Random Access Memory

Data Processing

Practical

Experiments Based on the Methods Described above

Index




Details

No. of pages:
276
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Pergamon 1976
Published:
Imprint:
Pergamon
eBook ISBN:
9781483187525

About the Author

D. J. Dewhurst