An Integration of Phycoremediation Processes in Wastewater Treatment

An Integration of Phycoremediation Processes in Wastewater Treatment

1st Edition - August 27, 2021

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  • Editors: Maulin Shah, Susana Rodriguez-Couto, Celia Bertha Vargas De La Cruz, Jayanta Biswas
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128234990
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128236314

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An Integration of Phycoremediation Processes in Wastewater Treatment reviews the potential of microalgae to treat wastewater containing highly recalcitrant compounds whose degradation is not achieved by the conventional existing treatments. In addition, the book describes how the microalgae collected after wastewater treatment can be used for obtaining added-value products, hence closing the loop and contributing to a circular economy. Finally, the technoeconomical aspects of this green technology are addressed, along with the design and development of photobioreactors, genetic aspects, metagenomics and metabolomics.

Key Features

  • Deals with emerging aspects of algal research, with a special reference to phycoremediation
  • Covers diversity, mutations, genomics, metagenomics, eco-physiology, culturing, microalgae for food and feed, biofuel production, harvesting of microalgae, separation and purification of biochemicals
  • Describes the techno-economical assessment, microalgal biotechnology and algal-bacterial systems for wastewater treatment
  • Presents complex issues associated with cutting-edge biotechnological tools and techniques like next-generation sequencing methods, metabolomics and bioreactor design and development


Engineers, scientists who require an excellent introduction and basic knowledge to the principles of Environmental Bioremediation Technologies. Different professionals, mangers working or interested in the Environmental Microbiology or Bioremediation field

Table of Contents

  • Cover Image
  • Title Page
  • Copyright
  • Table of Contents
  • Contributors
  • Chapter 1 Lipid extraction and biodiesel production from microalgae: Recent advances
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Microalgal biomass to lipid
  • Recent advancement to conventional lipid extraction approach
  • Microalgal lipid to biodiesel
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • Chapter 2 Algal biomass production coupled to wastewater treatment
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Wastewater: the necessary evil
  • Biological and biochemical methods
  • Wastewater resources recovery through phycoremediation
  • Integrated biomass cultivation and wastewater treatment
  • Cultivation strategies of microalgae for wastewater treatment
  • Current commercial scale in wastewater treatment systems using suspended free cells of microalgae
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Chapter 3 Bioprospecting of novel algal species with nanobiotechnology
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Phycogenic nanoparticles
  • Gold nanoparticles
  • Silver nanoparticles
  • Cadmium nanoparticles
  • Copper nanoparticles
  • Iron nanoparticles
  • Palladium nanoparticles
  • Platinum nanoparticles
  • Zinc oxide nanoparticles
  • Mechanism
  • Applications
  • Sensor
  • Metal removal
  • Conclusions and future perspectives
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Chapter 4 Role of microalgae in degradation of pharmaceutical compounds from water
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Pharmaceutical compounds
  • Pharmaceuticals usage and consumption pattern
  • Occurrence of pharmaceutical compounds in water
  • Ecological and environmental risks of pharmaceutical contaminants
  • Analytical processes for the assessment of pharmaceutical contaminants in water
  • Strategies to remove pharmaceutical contaminants from water
  • Physical methods
  • Chemical methods
  • Biological methods
  • Removal of pharmaceutical contaminants by microalgae
  • Mechanism of removal by microalgae
  • Algal treatment systems
  • Factors that influence the degradation of pharmaceutical contaminants by microalgae
  • Integrated approaches for removal of pharmaceutical contaminants from water (future prospects)
  • Novel technologies for enhanced biodegradation of pharmaceutical contaminants by microalgae
  • Genetically engineered algal based reclamation technologies
  • Conclusion
  • Suggested guidelines for regulating pharmaceutical contamination in water
  • References
  • Chapter 5 Algae mediated technologies in biotreatment of phenolic wastewaters
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Phenol as a pollutant: Environmental release and phenol pollution in aquatic and soil ecosystems
  • Ecological toxicity of phenol
  • Treatment of phenol pollution
  • Microalgal wastewater treatment: Future of sustainable wastewater treatment
  • Algal remediation of phenolics
  • Mechanism of algal phenol metabolism
  • Application of phycoremediation to real phenolic wastewater
  • Conclusion and future perspectives
  • Acknowledgements
  • Competing interests
  • References
  • Chapter 6 Microalgae: A potential tool for wastewater treatment and its biotechnological applications
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Microalgae a potential tool for wastewater treatment
  • Algae technology
  • Factors affecting the growth of microalgae
  • Biotechnological applications of microalgae
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 7 Trends in photobioreactor technology for microalgal biomass production along with wastewater treatment: Bottlenecks and breakthroughs
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Wastewater treatment processes
  • Modes of nutrition in algae and their relative efficiency in wastewater treatment plant
  • Removal of contaminants by microalgae
  • Types of photobioreactors
  • Photobioreactor operational parameters for wastewater treatment and scope for improvements
  • Design consideration of photobioreactor
  • Heavy metal removal from wastewater
  • Alternative culture and treatments
  • Utilization of harvested algal biomass in biogas production
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 8 Algae: The high potential resource for biofuel production
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 9 Bioactive compounds from microalgae cultivated in wastewaters
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Bioactive substances produced by microalgae
  • Culture conditions
  • Production of valuable compounds coupled to wastewater treatment
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 10 Wastewater treatment coupled to algal biomass production
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Nutrient availability
  • Wastewater as a substrate for microalgae
  • Inhibitors present in wastewater
  • Photobioreactors for wastewater treatment using microalgae
  • Microalgal species for wastewater treatment: Robust strains and consortia
  • Biomass valorization: End use of the produced biomass, prospects, and challenges
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 11 Microbial communities: An effective tool for cleaning environment
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Microbial interactions
  • Processes involved in bioremediation
  • Bioremediation of pollutants
  • Coexistence of microorganisms within the microbial communities
  • Integrated strategies
  • Conclusions and future aspects
  • Abbreviations:
  • References
  • Chapter 12 An overview of various algal biomolecules and its applications
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Value-added products
  • Potential applications of microalgae
  • Wastewater treatment
  • Bioremediation of heavy metals
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 13 Use of bioprospecting approach to reveal the potential of various algal species for value added compounds
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Algae as a source of value-added compounds
  • Algal bioprospecting practices in India
  • Future outlook
  • Abbreviations
  • References
  • Chapter 14 Integration of wastewater treatment with algal cultivation for the production of biofuel and bioenergy
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Algal cultivation
  • Microalgal cultivation system for wastewater treatment
  • Conventional algal biomass harvesting methods
  • Microalgae mediated wastewater treatment
  • Global initiative and future perspectives
  • Conclusions
  • Acknowledgement
  • References
  • Chapter 15 An innovative role of bioactive compounds from microalgae
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Current scenario of microalgal bioactive compounds with respect to:
  • Conclusion and future prospect
  • Acknowledgements
  • Abbreviations
  • References
  • Chapter 16 Bioactive compounds from microalgae
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Uses of microalgae
  • Selection, isolation, and cultivation of microalgae
  • Mode of cultivation
  • Green product from microalgae
  • Bioactive component produced by microalgae
  • Secondary metabolite and their commercial potential
  • Microalgae as potential alternate to health supplement for humans
  • Antibiotic activity of microalgae
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 17 Algal biofuels
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Algal biofuel production
  • Optimum growth conditions for algae
  • Microalgae cultivation techniques
  • Microalgae harvesting technique
  • Techniques for conversion of biomass to biofuel
  • Biofuels from algae
  • Challenges and future prospects of algal biofuels
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 18 Genetic engineered algae: Recent developments and the promising engender for wastewater treatment
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Historical view of algae as resources
  • Major composites of wastewater
  • Microalgae and wastewater treatment
  • Transgenic basis of algae
  • Major challenges in the implementation of algae base waste treatment system
  • The current scenario in wastewater treatment by the modified algal-based system
  • Algae-based wastewater treatment by (photo) bioreactor systems
  • Genetic modification of algae to enhance wastewater treatment
  • Limitations in the field of genetically engineered algae
  • Conclusion and future prospective
  • References
  • Chapter 19 Waste gas and wastewater into biodiesel: Closing the loop on the circular energy economy
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Overview of phycovalorisation/phycoremediation of waste gases
  • General
  • The impact of carbon dioxide as an inorganic carbon source
  • NOx in flue gas
  • SOx in flue gas
  • Gas temperature
  • Micropollutants (heavy metals)
  • Light effect on photosynthesis
  • Introducing gas into the culture and other forms of inorganic carbon
  • Overview of phycovalorisation/phycoremediation of organic wastewater
  • General
  • Nutrient profiles and nutrients
  • Environmental parameters
  • Light and CO2
  • Temperature
  • Other microorganisms
  • Transport parameters and reactor selection
  • Mixed cultivation (waste gas and wastewater) with kinetics and reactor selection
  • Impact of parameters in mixed cultivation
  • Light
  • Temperature
  • Refractory metals
  • pH, interaction of components, and composition of the growth media
  • Kinetics and reactor selection
  • Kinetics
  • Photobioreactor selection
  • Scaling up
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 20 Agriculture waste bioremediation with algae and potential for methane production
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Algae, nutritional requirements, and growth
  • Taxonomic groups and characteristics
  • Algal growth in agricultural waste
  • Anaerobic digestion of algae
  • Codigestion of algae with agricultural waste examples and applications (Bruhn et al., 2011; Monlau et al., 2014)
  • Relationship between algae and methanogenic bacteria
  • On anaerobic digestion
  • Downstream processing
  • Costs associated with algae use for biofuel production
  • New Zealand context
  • Limitations and future research
  • References
  • Chapter 21 Microalgae: Classification, bioactives, medicinal properties, industrial applications, and future prospectives
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Botanical desrciption of microalgae
  • Brief classification of microalgae
  • Commercially important microalgae
  • Bioactive compounds in microalgae
  • Health effects and disease management
  • Antiinflammatory activity
  • Antioxidant activity
  • Anticancer activity
  • Antimicrobial potential
  • Neuroprotective activity
  • Antiobesity and antidiabetic potential
  • Cosmeceuticals properties
  • Toxic compounds from microalgae
  • Role of microalgae in bioremediation
  • Industrial applications of microalgae
  • Biofertilizers
  • Biofuels
  • Future prospectives
  • References
  • Chapter 22 Genetic engineering of algae
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Historical perspective
  • Genetic engineering tools used to obtain to transgenic algae
  • Nuclear versus chloroplast expression
  • Applications of genetically engineered algae
  • Recent advances in genetic engineering of algae
  • Conclusions and future prospects
  • Acknowledgements
  • Conflict of interest
  • References
  • Chapter 23 Bioactive compounds from microalgae
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Biochemical constituents of microalgae
  • Lipids
  • Proteins
  • Carbohydrates
  • Carotenoids and chlorophylls
  • Phenolics
  • Terpenoids
  • Alkaloids
  • Other bioactive compounds
  • Extraction of microalgal secondary compounds
  • Solvent extraction
  • Enzyme-assisted extraction
  • Supercritical fluid extraction
  • Pressurized liquid extraction
  • Ultrasound-assisted extraction
  • Microwave-assisted extraction
  • Subcritical water extraction
  • Screening of microalgae metabolites for bioactivity
  • Antioxidant activity
  • Antimicrobial assays
  • Antiinflammatory activity
  • Antitumor activity
  • Immunomodulatory activity
  • Pharmaceutical and industrial uses of bioactive compounds
  • References
  • Chapter 24 Win-win wastewater phycoremediation: Coupled carbon sequestration and heavy metal removal
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Microalgal diversity in wastewater
  • Carbon sequestration by algae
  • Heavy metal removal by algae from wastewater
  • Potential role of microalgae in coupled phycoremediation of heavy metals and carbon sequestration
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 584
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2021
  • Published: August 27, 2021
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128234990
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128236314

About the Editors

Maulin Shah

Dr. Maulin P. Shah is Chief Scientist and Head of the Industrial Waste Water Research Lab, Division of Applied and Environmental Microbiology Lab at Enviro Technology Ltd., Ankleshwar, Gujarat, India. His work focuses on the impact of industrial pollution on the microbial diversity of wastewater following cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent analysis. His major work involves isolation, screening, identification, and genetically engineering high-impact microbes for the degradation of hazardous materials. His research interests include biological wastewater treatment, environmental microbiology, biodegradation, bioremediation, and phytoremediation of environmental pollutants from industrial wastewaters. He has published more than 250 research papers in national and international journals of repute on various aspects of microbial biodegradation and bioremediation of environmental pollutants. He is the editor of more than 50 books of international repute (Elsevier, Springer, RSC, and CRC Press). He is an active editorial board member in top-rated journals.

Affiliations and Expertise

Industrial Waste Water Research Laboratory, Division of Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Gujarat, India

Susana Rodriguez-Couto

Susana Rodríguez-Couto (female) got her B.Sc. and M.Sc. in Chemistry (Industrial Chemistry) from the University of Santiago de Compostela in 1992 and her Ph.D. in Chemistry in 1999 from the University of Vigo, obtaining the maximal grade (magna cum laude) and, in addition, she was awarded with the Extraordinary Prize for Doctoral Thesis in Chemistry. She worked as an Associate Professor and an Isidro Parga Pondal Senior Researcher at the University of Vigo (2000-2004), as a Ramón y Cajal Senior Researcher at Rovira i Virgili University (2004-2008) and as an Ikerbasque Research Professor (2009-2019). She has also worked as an Invited Researcher at the Institute from Environmental Biotechnology, Graz University of Technology (Austria) and at the Department of Biological Engineering, University of Minho (Portugal). In 2008, she received the I3 Professor from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Education to the recognition of an outstanding research activity. In March 2021 she is joining LUT School of Engineering Science at Mikkeli, Finland, as a Full Professor in biological water treatment. She has published more than 140 articles in highly reputed international journals (h index 42). She is editor of several journals (3Biotech, Frontiers) and 14 Elsevier books.

Affiliations and Expertise

Full Professor (Biological Water Treatment), Department of Separation Science, LUT School of Engineering Science, LUT University, Finland

Celia Bertha Vargas De La Cruz

Celia Bertha Vargas de la Cruz. She is Assistant Professor of Biotechnology and microbiology at San Marcos University Lima-Perú. Her experience in biotechnology, applying omics has allowed to use living organisms for the removal of toxic pollutants form liquid and hazardous waste. She is handling various projects on waste water treatment, biofiltration, environmental sustainability.

Affiliations and Expertise

Assistant Professor of Biotechnology, Microbiological Food Safety and Distinguished Scientist, Faculty Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú

Jayanta Biswas

Prof. (Dr.) Jayanta Kumar Biswas is a Professor at Department of Ecological Studies and International Centre for Ecological Engineering, University of Kalyani, West Bengal, India. He obtained M.Sc. in Zoology, M.Phil. in Ecology and Ph.D. for his work on Eco technological management of aquatic systems. His spectrum of research interest and expertise span the following focal areas: ecotoxicology and bioremediation of toxic metal(loid)s; ecological engineering and eco technological remediation of water and soil contaminants; environmental microbiology; Nano biotechnology; dynamics of nutrients and toxic contaminants in water and soil; bio regenerative reclamation of wastewater. A consistent rank holder all through his academic career Professor Biswas received many scholarships, awards and fellowships including Fellow, West Bengal Academy of Science and Technology (FAScT), Fellow, National Environmentalists Association (FNEA), Zoological Society of India (FZSI), Zoological Society, Kolkata (FZS), Senior Scientist Award & Gold Medal (ZSI), Best Research Paper Award (AESA), Outstanding Reviewer Award (Chemosphere (Elsevier) & Environmental Geochemistry and Health (Springer); SRF (ICAR); National Merit Scholarship (MHRD, GoI), etc. He is credited with publishing 130 research papers in international and national journals. He is serving as editorial board member of several international journals of repute, namely Science of the Total Environment (Elsevier); Environmental Geochemistry and Health (Springer); Current Pollution Reports (Springer); Energy & Environment (SAGE). He visited several countries with government travel fellowships, to present research papers and chair scientific sessions in International conferences.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Department of Ecological Studies, International Centre for Ecological Engineering, University of Kalyani, Kalyani, West Bengal, India

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