Amplitude Distribution Spectrometers V3

Amplitude Distribution Spectrometers V3

1st Edition - January 1, 1980

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  • Author: Waldemar Scharf
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444601216

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Description

Fundamental Studies in Engineering 3: Amplitude Distribution Spectrometers reviews amplitude or pulse-height distribution analyzers, both single- and multichannel types, and spectrometers, along with their construction and operation. It discusses the basic parameters of electrical impulses, the general parameters of amplitude distribution spectrometers, the conventional methods of analyzing amplitude distribution by means of single-channel spectrometers, analysis of amplitude spectra using computer methods, and methods and devices for multiparameter amplitude analysis. Comprised of eight chapters, this volume begins with an overview of physical phenomena that can be represented in the form of electrical impulses arising in transducers of physical quantities. It then discusses the use of pulse-height spectrometers to determine the height distributions of electrical impulses, trends in the development of pulse-height spectrometers, conventional pulse-height analysis, and multispectral scaling. The reader is methodically introduced to the analysis of Gaussian distributions, Fourier-transform analysis, and measuring units used in preliminary signal processing. Other chapters focus on spectrogram recording methods, methods of spectrum averaging, computer methods of spectral analysis, and methods of recording multi-parameter spectrograms. The book concludes with a review of the use of pulse-height spectrometers in a wide range of fields such as medicine, biology, astronomy, nuclear research, space research, and physico-chemical research. Users of amplitude spectrometers in various fields of science and technology will find this book extremely useful.

Table of Contents


  • Preface

    Chapter 1. Preliminaries

    1.1. Electrical Impulses

    1.2. Pulse-Height Distribution

    1.3. Pulse-Height Spectrometers

    1.4. Pulse-Height Spectra

    1.5. Pulse-Height Transducers

    1.5.1. Photoelectric Transducers

    1.5.2. Spectrometric Ionization Detectors

    1.5.3. Semiconductor Detectors

    1.5.4. Comparison of the Properties of Spectrometric Ionizing-Radiation Transducers

    1.6. The Fundamental Parameters of Single- and Multichannel Spectrometers

    1.6.1. Resolution

    1.6.2. Spectrometer Linearity,

    1.6.3. The Maximum Pulse Rate

    1.6.4. Spectrometer Stability

    1.7. The Growth of Measurement Requirements. Trends in the Development of Pulse-Height Spectrometers

    References

    Chapter 2. Types of Measured Distributions Analyzed, Typical Displays, and Data Processing

    2.1. Conventional Pulse-Height Analysis

    2.1.1. Data Acquisition and Analysis

    2.1.2. Internal Processing of Results

    2.2. Multiscaling

    2.3. Multispectral Scaling

    2.4. Time Histograms

    2.5. Multichannel Averaging

    2.6. Correlation Analysis

    2.7. Probability Analysis

    2.8. Analysis of Gaussian Distributions

    2.9. Fourier-Transform Analysis

    References

    Chapter 3. The Operation and Construction of Pulse-Height Spectrometers

    3.1. Units for Preliminary Signal Processing

    3.1.1. Requirements and Basic Units

    3.1.2. Pulse Signal Shaping

    3.1.3. Baseline Restoration

    3.1.4. Pile-up Rejection. Pole Zero Cancellation

    3.1.5. Pulse Stretching

    3.1.6. An Example of Associated Pulse Processing

    3.2. Systems for the Preliminary Time Processing of Signals

    3.2.1. Causes of Distortion of Time Information

    3.2.2. Types of Time Discriminators

    3.3. The Parameters and Construction of Linear Pulse Amplifiers

    3.3.1. The Basic Block Diagram. The Amplifier Parameters

    3.3.2. Pulse Amplifiers

    3.4. Single-Channel Spectrometers

    3.4.1. Basic Circuits

    3.4.2. Elements of Single-Channel Spectrometers

    3.4.3. Parameters of Single-Channel Spectrometers

    3.4.4. Designs of Single-Channel Spectrometers

    3.5. Multichannel Spectrometers

    3.5.1. Methods of Pulse-Height Segregation and Conversion in Multichannel Analyzers

    3.5.2. Methods of Multichannel Time Analysis

    3.5.3. Memory Circuits

    3.5.4. Hardwired Multichannel Spectrometers

    3.5.5. Multichannel Spectrometers with Minicomputers

    References

    Chapter 4. Determination of Pulse-Height Distributions with Single-Channel Spectrometers

    4.1. Spectrogram Recording Methods

    4.2. Interpretation of Results

    4.2.1. The Influence of Finite Channel Width

    4.2.2. Spectrogram Distortions Associated with the Integrating Time Constant

    and the Channel Shift Rate

    4.2.3. Distortions Associated with the Integrator Charging Time Constant

    4.2.4. Choice of Optimal Spectrometer Parameters

    4.2.5. Distinguishability of Neighbouring Peaks

    4.2.6. Spectrogram Processing

    References

    Chapter 5. Determination of Pulse-Height Distributions with Multichannel Spectrometers

    5.1. Accuracy of Representation on CRT Display

    5.2. Simple Graphical-Computational Methods

    5.3. Methods of Spectrum Averaging

    5.4. The Boekelheide Method

    5.4.1. The Fundamentals

    5.4.2. Estimation of the Errors of the Boekelheide Method

    5.4.3. Practical Examples

    5.4.4. Experimental Verification of Results

    5.5. The Stripping Method

    5.6. The Mundschenk Method

    5.6.1. The Technique of Spectrum Decomposition

    5.6.2. Standardization of Spectrum Structure

    5.6.3. Peak-Area Standardization

    5.6.4. Calculation of the Intensities of Complex Peaks

    References

    Chapter 6. Determination of Pulse-Height Distributions by Computer Methods

    6.1. Range of Applications and Capabilities of Computer Methods

    6.2. Fundamentals of Computer Methods of Spectral Analysis

    6.2.1. Data Smoothing

    6.2.2. Peak Locating Procedures

    6.2.3. Determination of Peak Shapes

    6.2.4. Calculation of Peak Areas

    6.3. The Example of the SAMPO Computer Program

    References

    Chapter 7. Multiparameter Spectrometers

    7.1. Methods of Recording Multiparameter Spectrograms

    7.1.1. The Conventional Two-Parameter Method

    7.1.2. Associative Multiparameter Methods

    7.1.3. The Tape or Disk Recording Method

    7.2. Display of Multiparameter Spectra

    7.3. Hardwired Multiparameter Spectrometer Systems

    7.4. Multiparameter Spectrometer Systems with Computers

    References

    Chapter 8. Applications of Pulse-Height Spectrometers

    8.1. Applications in Nuclear Engineering

    8.2. Applications in Medicine and Biology

    8.3. Applications in Astronomy and Space Research

    8.4. Physico-chemical Applications

    8.4.1. Activation Analysis

    8.4.2. Fluorescence Analysis

    8.4.3. Mössbauer Spectroscopy

    8.4.4. Spectrofluorimetric Measurements

    References

    Appendix

    Abbreviations used

    Subject Index




Product details

  • No. of pages: 578
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 1980
  • Published: January 1, 1980
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444601216

About the Author

Waldemar Scharf

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