Amino Acids and Derivatives - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780126754056, 9781483220352

Amino Acids and Derivatives

1st Edition

The Biochemistry of Plants

Editors: B. J. Miflin
eBook ISBN: 9781483220352
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th September 1980
Page Count: 686
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The Biochemistry of Plants: A Comprehensive Treatise, Volume 5: Amino Acids and Derivatives provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of plant biochemistry relating to the metabolism of amino acids with emphasis on amino acids present in proteins. This book discusses the metabolism of sulfur and nitrogen from the inorganic sources available to plants through their incorporation into organic compounds.

Organized into 17 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of some aspects of the biochemistry of symbiotic nitrogen fixation. This text then examines the ultrastructure and metabolism of the developing nodule with particular emphasis on interactions between the host legumes and the bacterial symbiont. Other chapters consider the characteristics of the enzymes involved in nitrate and nitrite reduction. The final chapter deals with the essential roles of amino acids and other soluble nitrogenous compounds in plant metabolism.

This book is a valuable resource for plant biochemists, neurobiochemists, molecular biologists, senior graduate students, and research workers.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors

General Preface

Preface to Volume 5

1 Biochemistry of Nitrogen Fixation

I. Introduction

II. Biochemistry of Nitrogenase

III. Physiological Aspects of Nitrogen Fixation

IV. Conclusions


2 Ultrastructure and Metabolism of the Developing Legume Root Nodule

I. Introduction

II. Legumes and the Symbiotic Genus Rhizobium

III. Ultrastructure of Developing Legume Nodules

IV. Biobhemistry of Developing Legume Nodules

V. Directions for Future Research


3 Nitrate and Nitrite Reduction

I. Introduction

II. Enzymatic Reduction of Nitrate

III. Enzymatic Reduction of Nitrite

IV. Enzymatic Reduction of Hydroxylamine

V. Location of Enzymes of Nitrate Assimilation

VI. Regulation of Nitrate Reductase

VII. Nitrate Availability in Higher Plants

VIII. Applied Research with Nitrate Reductase


4 Ammonia Assimilation

I. Introduction

II. Evidence for Distinguishing between Pathways

III. Assimilation in Tissues

IV. Control of Ammonia Assimilation

V. Conclusions


5 Assimilation of Inorganic Sulfate into Cysteine

I. Introduction

II. Sulfate Uptake

III. Sulfate Activation

IV. Formation of Bound Sulfite

V. Reduction of Bound Sulfite

VI. Reduction of Free Sulfite

VII. Incorporation of Free and Bound Sulfite into Cysteine

VIII. Sulfur Flux

IX. Regulation of Sulfate Assimilation


6 Physical and Chemical Properties of Amino Acids

I. Introduction

II. Physical Properties, Acid-Base Behavior, and Separation of Amino Acids

III. Instability of Amino Acids

IV. Chemical Reactions of Amino Acids

V. Conclusion


7 Enzymes of Glutamate Formation: Glutamate Dehydrogenase, Glutamine Synthetase, and Glutamate Synthase

I. Introduction

II. Glutamate Dehydrogenase

III. Glutamine Synthetase

IV. Glutamate Synthase

V. Control of Enzyme Levels


8 Aminotransferases in Higher Plants

I. Introduction

II. Role of Aminotransferases in Plant Metabolism

III. Enzymology of Plant Aminotransferases

IV. Isoenzymes and the Subcellular Distribution of Aminotransferases


9 Synthesis and Interconversion of Glycine and Serine

I. Introduction

II. Synthesis of Glycine and Serine

III. Interconversion of Glycine and Serine

IV. Concluding Remarks


10 Arginine Synthesis, Proline Synthesis, and Related Processes

I. Introduction

II. Arginine Synthesis and the Ornithine Cycle

III. Proline Synthesis

IV. Interconnections Between Metabolic Pathways of Arginine and Proline

V. Summary


11 Synthesis of the Aspartate Family and Branched-Chain Amino Acids

I. Introduction

II. Biosynthetic Mechanisms

III. Regulatory Mechanisms

IV. Integration of Amino Acid Biosynthesis

V. Demonstration of Biosynthetic Regulation in Vivo

VI. Summary and Conclusions


12 Sulfur Amino Acids in Plants

I. Introduction

II. Cysteine Biosynthesis

III. Methionine

IV. Glutathione

V. S-Methylmethionine

VI. S-Methylcysteine and Its Derivatives

VII. Reprise


13 Aromatic Amino Acid Biosynthesis and Its Regulation

I. Introduction

II. Shikimate Pathway

III. Synthesis of Chorismate

IV. Recycling of Shikimate and Quinate

V. Metabolism of Chorismate

VI. Intracellular Localization and Metabolite Pools

VII. Conclusion


14 Histidine Biosynthesis

I. Introduction

II. The Pathway

III. Control of the Pathway

IV. Conclusion


15 Amino Acid Catabolism

I. Introduction

II. Alkyl Amino Acids

III. Hydroxyamino Acids

IV. Aromatic Amino Acids

V. Acidic Amino Acids and Amides

VI. Basic Amino Acids

VII. Sulfur-Containing Amino Acids

VIII. Imino Acids

IX. Concluding Statements


16 Transport and Metabolism of Asparagine and Other Nitrogen Compounds within the Plant

I. Transport of N within the Plant

II. Pathways of Asparagine Metabolism

III. Enzymology of Asparagine Metabolism

IV. Metabolism of Other Transport Compounds

V. Conclusions


17 Accumulation of Amino Acids and Related Compounds in Relation to Environmental Stress

I. Introduction

II. Mineral Element Stresses

III. Water Stress

IV. Temperature Stress

V. Pathogen and Predator Relationships

VI. Concluding Remarks



Contents of Other Volumes


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© Academic Press 1980
Academic Press
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About the Editor

B. J. Miflin

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