A Treasury of Poisons and Medicines

1st Edition - October 21, 2014

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  • Authors: Shinji Funayama, Geoffrey A. Cordell
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780124173026
  • eBook ISBN: 9780124173149

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Alkaloids are a large group of structurally complex natural products displaying a wide range of biological activities. The purpose of Alkaloids: A Treasury of Poisons and Medicines is to classify, for the first time, the alkaloids isolated from the natural sources until now. The book classifies all of the alkaloids by their biosynthetic origins. Of interest to the organic chemistry and medicinal chemistry communities involved in drug discovery and development, this book describes many alkaloids isolated from the medicinal plants, including those used in Japanese Kampo medicine.

Key Features

  • Classifies and lists alkaloids from natural sources
  • Occurrence and biosynthetic pathways of alkaloids
  • Indicates key uses and bioactivity of alkaloids


Scientists in the natural products field, as well as chemistry, biochemistry and pharmacy students. Scientists working for pharmaceutical companies. Physicians, pharmacists and other professionals who are interested in Japanese Kampo medine.

Table of Contents

    • Foreword
    • Introduction
      • 1. The Definition of An Alkaloid
      • 2. Classification of Alkaloids
      • 3. Humans and Alkaloids
      • 4. Development of Pharmacognosy and Natural Product Chemistry, and Alkaloids
      • 5. Brief History of Japanese Pharmaceutical Sciences and Alkaloids
      • 6. CNS Stimulation and Alkaloids
    • Chapter 1. Alkaloids Derived from Phenylalanine and Tyrosine
      • 1.1. Phenylethylamines (Phenethylamines)
      • 1.2. L-DOPA and Dopamine
      • 1.3. Thyroid Gland and Thyroxine
      • 1.4. Coclaurine and Coclaurine-Type Alkaloids
      • 1.5. Tubocurare and d-tubocurarine
      • 1.6. Aporphine-Type Alkaloids
      • 1.7. Aristolochia spp. and Aristolochic Acid
      • 1.8. Phellodendron amurense and berberine
      • 1.9. Chelidonium majus and Chelidonine
      • 1.10. Opium and Morphine
      • 1.11. Colchicum and Colchicine
      • 1.12. Erythrina indica and Erythrina Alkaloids
      • 1.13. Lycoris spp. and Lycorine
      • 1.14. Cephaelis ipecacuanha and Emetine
    • Chapter 2. Alkaloids Derived from Tryptophan
      • 2.1. Serotonin
      • 2.2. Auxin and Indole-3-Acetic Acid
      • 2.3. Teonanacatl and Psilocybin
      • 2.4. Indigo and the Ancient Purple
      • 2.5. Calabar Beans and Physostigmine
      • 2.6. Harmala and Harmine
      • 2.7. Picrasma sp. and Nigakinone
      • 2.8. Clerodendron and Trichotomine
      • 2.9. Iboga and Ibogaine
      • 2.10. Rauvolfia and Reserpine
      • 2.11. Yohimbe and Yohimbine
      • 2.12. Camptotheca and Camptothecin
      • 2.13. Uncaria and Rhynchophylline
      • 2.14. nux Vomica and Strychnine
      • 2.15. Calabash Curare and C-Curarine and C-Toxiferine I
      • 2.16. Ergot, Ergot Alkaloids, and LSD
      • 2.17. Cinchona and Quinine
      • 2.18. Catharanthus roseus and VLB and VCR
      • 2.19. Euodia rutaecarpa and Evodiamine and Rutaecarpine
      • 2.20. Athlete’s Foot and Pyrrolnitrin
      • 2.21. Anthramycin and Tomaymycin
      • 2.22. Streptonigrin
      • 2.23. Staurosporine
    • Chapter 3. Alkaloids Derived from Ornithine and Arginine
      • 3.1. Tobacco and Nicotine
      • 3.2. Belladonna and Atropine
      • 3.3. Coca Leaves and Cocaine
      • 3.4. Senecio and Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids
      • 3.5. Alkaloids Derived from Polyamines
      • 3.6. Putrescine and Piriferine
      • 3.7. Spermidine and Agrobactin
      • 3.8. Spermine and Ephedradine
      • 3.9. Fugu and Tetrodotoxin
    • Chapter 4. Alkaloids Derived from Lysine
      • 4.1. Pepper (Piper nigrum) and Piperine
      • 4.2. Punica granatum and Pelletierine
      • 4.3. Tobacco and Anabasine
      • 4.4. Lobelia inflata (Indian Tobacco) and Lobeline
      • 4.5. Sophora flavescens and Matrine
      • 4.6. Common broom (Cytisus scoparius) and Sparteine
    • Chapter 5. Alkaloids Derived from Proline
      • 5.1. Serratia and Prodigiosin
      • 5.2. Stachydrine
      • 5.3. Pyrrole-2-carboxylic Acid
    • Chapter 6. Alkaloids Derived from Glutamic Acid
      • 6.1. γ-Aminobutyric Acid
      • 6.2. Digenea simplex and Kainic Acid
      • 6.3. Clitocybe acromelalga and Acromelic Acid
      • 6.4. Amanita pantherina and Ibotenic Acid
    • Chapter 7. Alkaloids Derived from Histidine
      • 7.1. Histamine
      • 7.2. Jaborandi and Pilocarpine
    • Chapter 8. Alkaloids Derived from 2,3-Diaminopropionic Acid
      • 8.1. Quisqualis indica Fruits and Quisqualic Acid
    • Chapter 9. Compounds Derived from Anthranilic Acid
      • 9.1. Orixa japonica and Quinoline Alkaloids
      • 9.2. Quinoline Alkaloids of Microbial Origin
      • 9.3. Acronycine and Acridone Alkaloids
      • 9.4. Quinoline Alkaloids Isolated from Higher Plants Other Than the Rutaceae Family
      • 9.5. Febrifugine and Related Alkaloids
      • 9.6. Harmala Alkaloids and Vasicine (Peganine)
      • 9.7. Phenazine Alkaloids Derived from Microorganisms
    • Chapter 10. Alkaloids Derived from Nicotinic Acid
      • 10.1. Nicotine and Anabasine
      • 10.2. Niacin and Vitamin B6
      • 10.3. Areca Nut and Arecoline
      • 10.4. Castor and Ricinine
    • Chapter 11. Alkaloids Derived from Nucleic Acids and Related Compounds
      • 11.1. Purine Bases and Caffeine
      • 11.2. Pyrimidine Bases, 5-Fluorouracil, and Vitamin B1
      • 11.3. Pteridine Skeleton and Folic Acid
    • Chapter 12. Alkaloids Possessing the Porphine Skeleton
      • 12.1. Heme and Chlorophyll
      • 12.2. Vitamin B12
    • Chapter 13. Alkaloids Derived from an m-C7N Unit
      • 13.1. Mitomycin C
      • 13.2. Naphthalenoid Ansamycins and Rifampicin
      • 13.3. Benzenoid Ansamycins and Maytansine
      • 13.4. The Biosynthesis–Stereochemistry Model (Celmer’s Model) of the Ansamycins
    • Chapter 14. Alkaloids Derived from Terpenoids
      • 14.1. Actinidia polygama and Actinidine
      • 14.2. Gentiana scabra and Gentianine
      • 14.3. Rhizome of Nuphar japonicum and Sesquiterpene Alkaloids
      • 14.4. Aconitum and Aconitine Alkaloids
      • 14.5. Taxus cuspidata and Taxol
      • 14.6. Pachysandra terminalis and Buxaceae Alkaloids
      • 14.7. Holarrhena antidysenterica and Conessine
      • 14.8. Potato and Solanine
      • 14.9. Fritillaria and Veratrum Alkaloids
      • 14.10. Arrow Toxins, Toxic Birds, and Batrachotoxin
    • Chapter 15. Alkaloids Derived from Polyketides
      • 15.1. Hemlock and Coniine
      • 15.2. Nigrifactin and Piericidins
    • Chapter 16. Alkaloids Derived from a C6–C1 Unit
      • 16.1. Ephedra Alkaloids
      • 16.2. Khat and Ephedra Alkaloids
      • 16.3. Naphthalene-Isoquinoline Alkaloids
      • 16.4. Red Pepper and Capsaicin
    • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 294
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2014
  • Published: October 21, 2014
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780124173026
  • eBook ISBN: 9780124173149

About the Authors

Shinji Funayama

Shinji Funayama
Professor Shinji Funayama obtained his Ph.D. in natural product chemistry at Tohoku University (Sendai, Japan) in 1980. After three years as a postdoctoral fellow at the Department of Pharmacognosy and Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) under the supervision of Professor Geoffrey A. Cordell, he joined the Kitasato Institute (Tokyo, Japan) as a senior researcher. After seven years, he joined as a Lecturer and was promoted to Assistant Professor at the Pharmaceutical Institute, Tohoku University. After six years in this position, he joined as an Associate Professor at Aomori University (Aomori, Japan). He was promoted to Professor there, and also served as a Guest Professor at Hirosaki University. After eight years, he became a Professor at Nihon Pharmaceutical University (Saitama, Japan) in 2003 and served as a Department Head for 10 years.

He is the author of about 150 research publications, book chapters, comprehensive reviews, and professional publications; is the author of 11 books, with five more in progress; and is the Associate Editor-in-Chief of the Pharmaceutical Biology (USA). He is a Councilor of the Japanese Society for History of Pharmacy. His interests include the chemistry and biosynthesis of alkaloids, the relationship of poisons and human beings, the Japanese ancient history of Poisons and Medicines, and also the use of vegetables as chemical reagents.

Affiliations and Expertise

Nihon Pharmaceutical University, Saitama, Japan

Geoffrey A. Cordell

Geoffrey A. Cordell

Professor Emeritus Geoffrey A. Cordell obtained his Ph.D. in synthetic natural product chemistry at the University of Manchester in 1970. After two years as a NATO postdoctoral fellow at the Department of Chemistry, M.I.T., he joined the College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC). A Professor since 1980, he served as a Department Head for 12 years and as Interim Dean of the College of Pharmacy for almost three years, as well as holding several other senior academic and research administrative positions at the Department, College, and Campus levels. He was the Co-founder of the US - Thai Consortium for Pharmacy Education, which developed and trained faculty for six new schools of pharmacy in Thailand. He retired from the University of Illinois in 2007. Since 1983, he has served as President of Natural Products Inc., a consulting company.

He is the author of about 600 research publications, book chapters, comprehensive reviews and professional publications; is the author of two books, with three more in progress; the editor of 37 books, including 29 volumes in the series “The Alkaloids: Chemistry and Biology”; is Associate Editor-in-Chief of the Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines; and a member of the Editorial Advisory Board of 26 international scientific journals. He is a former President of the American Society of Pharmacognosy, and is also an Honorary Member.

In 1981, he was an Alexander von Humboldt Fellow at the University of Munich with Professor Hildebert Wagner. He is an elected Fellow of the Royal Chemical Society, the Linnean Society of London, the American Society of Pharmacognosy, and the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists. In addition to assisting international organizations and corporations in several countries around the world to develop their research and academic programs, he is an Honorary Professor at Sichuan University, Chengdu, China; and at Amity University, Noida, India. He is also a Visiting Professor at universities in Peru, Malaysia, and Brasil, and an International Collaborative Partner of the UTAR Global Research Network in Malaysia in the areas of biodiversity and cancer. In addition, he is a member of the International Advisory Board of several natural product research institutes. His interests include the chemistry and biosynthesis of alkaloids, the sustainability and quality control of medicinal agents, the remote detection of biologically active natural products, and the use of vegetables as chemical reagents.

Affiliations and Expertise

Natural Products Inc., Evanston, IL, USA

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