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Airborne Radioactive Contamination in Inhabited Areas - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080449890, 9780080914251

Airborne Radioactive Contamination in Inhabited Areas, Volume 15

1st Edition

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Series Volume Editor: K.G. Andersson
Hardcover ISBN: 9780080449890
eBook ISBN: 9780080914251
Imprint: Elsevier Science
Published Date: 9th September 2009
Page Count: 368
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Table of Contents


  1. Potential sources of contamination in inhabited areas
    1. Introduction
    1. Background
    1. Accidents at nuclear installations
    1. Accidents with highly radioactive sources
    1. Transport accidents
    1. Nuclear powered satellites entering the atmosphere
    1. Malicious use of radiation and radiological terrorism
    1. References
  2. The dispersion, deposition and resuspension of atmospheric contamination in the outdoor urban environment
    1. Introduction
    1. Modelling of radionuclide dispersion
    1. Physical forms of radionuclides in the environment
    1. Dry deposition
  3. 4.1. Atmospheric dry deposition mechanisms
  4. 4.2. Physical factors affecting deposition velocity
  5. 4.3. Dry deposition in the urban environment
    1. Wet deposition
  6. 5.1. The below-cloud scavenging of particulate materials
  7. 5.2. The wet deposition of gases
  8. 5.3 Retention of deposited material by surfaces
  9. 5.4. Deposition in fog or cloud
    1. The resuspension of deposited material
  10. 6.1. Factors affecting resuspension
  11. 6.2. Wind generated resuspension
  12. 6.3. Resuspension from roads
    1. References
  13. Airborne contamination inside dwellings
    1. Introduction
    1. Ingression of contaminants into dwellings
    1. Deposition and removal of contaminants on indoor surfaces
  14. 3.1. Deposition
  15. 3.1.1. Background theory
  16. 3.1.2. A review of experimental research to establish likely ranges of deposition parameter values
  17. 3.1.3. A review of experimental work to establish influencing factors
  18. 3.2. Removal of contaminants from indoor surfaces
    1. Resuspension
  19. 4.1. Background theory
  20. 4.2. A summary of selected studies, to establish likely ranges of resuspension parameter values
  21. 4.3. A review of published work to establish the influencing factors on aerosol resuspension
    1. References
  22. Contamination of humans: in respiratory tract and on body surfaces
    1. Introduction
    1. Biological effects of radiation on the respiratory tract
  23. 2.1. Epidemiological studies
  24. 2.2. The ICRP lung model
  25. 2.2.1. Morphology and physiology
  26. 2.2.2. Deposition model
  27. 2.2.3. Clearance Model
  28. 2.2.4. Validation of the ICRP model with measurement data
    1. Biological effects of radiation on the skin
  29. 3.1. The structure of the human skin
  30. 3.2. Dose implications of radioactive contamination of the skin
    1. Contaminant exposure and clearance on humans
  31. 4.1. Airborne contaminant deposition on human skin, hair and clothing
  32. 4.2. Aerosol deposition velocities to humans
  33. 4.2.1. Aerosol deposition velocities to skin
  34. 4.2.2. Aerosol deposition velocities to clothing
  35. 4.2.3. Aerosol deposition velocities to hair
  36. 4.3. Contact transfer of contaminants to humans
  37. 4.4. Natural clearance of contaminants from humans
    1. References
  38. Migration of radionuclides on outdoor surfaces
    1. Introduction
    1. Influence of initial physico-chemical forms of deposited contaminants
    1. Migration of radionuclides in areas of soil in an inhabited environment
  39. 3.1. Selective fixation of caesium in soil minerals
  40. 3.2. Retention in soil of contaminant ions by different mechanisms
  41. 3.3. Binding strength and migration of contaminants in areas of soil
    1. Migration of radionuclides on anthropogeneous surfaces in an inhabited environment
  42. 4.1. Migration of contamination deposited on roofs
  43. 4.2. Migration of contamination deposited on walls
  44. 4.3. Migration of contamination deposited on horizontal paved surfaces
    1. References
  45. Estimation of doses in inhabited areas
    1. Introduction
    1. Why models are needed
    1. External dose rate from contaminated surfaces
  46. 3.1. Initial deposition to different surfaces
  47. 3.2. Behaviour of material following deposition
  48. 3.3. External dose rate from gamma irradiation
  49. 3.4. External dose rate from beta irradiation
    1. Ingestion dose from food contaminated in inhabited areas
    1. Other possible dose contributions in the inhabited environment
    1. Examples of calculated dose rates
  50. 6.1. Illustrative calculations of dose components for a dry deposition case
  51. 6.1.1. Contamination on streets
  52. 6.1.2. Contamination on roofs
  53. 6.1.3. Contamination on walls
  54. 6.1.4. Contamination on open (grassed) soil areas
  55. 6.1.5. Contamination on trees and shrubs
  56. 6.1.6. Contamination on indoor surfaces
  57. 6.1.7. Contamination on humans
  58. 6.1.8. Contamination inhaled during the plume passage
  59. 6.1.9. External irradiation from the contaminated plume
  60. 6.1.10. Contamination in locally produced food
  61. 6.1.11. Discussion of dose calculations
  62. 6.2. Example of external dose calculations made with a complex model
    1. Doses from non-anthropogenic sources
    1. Current and future inhabited area dose model trends and needs
  63. 8.1. Initial deposition
  64. 8.2. Weathering
  65. 8.3. Calculating dose rate from contamination on different surfaces
  66. 8.4. Behaviour of people
  67. 8.5. The choice of model
  68. 8.6. Future work needed
    1. References
  69. Measurement and screening of contaminated inhabited areas
    1. Introduction
    1. Main issues to be considered when designing contamination monitoring capabilities
    1. Objectives and scope of contamination measurements and screening
    1. Instrumentation
  70. 4.1. Measurement of pure alpha emitters
  71. 4.2. Measurement of pure beta emitters
  72. 4.3. Measurement of gamma emitters
    1. Contamination monitoring techniques, basic elements of a comprehensive monitoring programme
  73. 5.1. Air contamination monitoring
  74. 5.2. Large area contamination monitoring
  75. 5.3. Sampling and measurement of the soil concentration of radionuclides
  76. 5.4. Surface contamination monitoring
  77. 5.5. Characterization of the contamination by dose rate measurements
  78. 5.6. Personal monitoring
  79. 5.7. QA measurements
    1. Scenarios
    1. Measurement of dose rates
    1. Screening of contamination level
    1. References
  80. Countermeasures for reduction of dose in contaminated inhabited areas
    1. Introduction
    1. Types of countermeasures
  81. 2.1. Countermeasures for reduction of doses from different exposure pathways
  82. 2.2. Countermeasures for different time phases
  83. 2.3. Countermeasures for decontamination or shielding
  84. 2.4. Countermeasures for different surfaces
  85. 2.5. Countermeasure alternatives for different area sizes: an example
    1. Systematic countermeasure descriptions
    1. Management of waste generated by countermeasures
  86. 4.1. Management of clean-up waste prior to disposal
  87. 4.1.1. Loading and transportation
  88. 4.1.2. Waste storage
  89. 4.1.3. Filtration of solid particles out of waste water
  90. 4.1.4. Treatments for contaminants in liquid waste
  91. 4.1.5. Reduction of volume of organic waste
  92. 4.1.6. Stabilisation of solid waste to avoid migration of contaminants
  93. 4.2. Waste disposal options
    1. References
  94. Non-radiological perspectives – holistic value assessment of countermeasure strategies
    1. Introduction
    1. Holistic assessment of countermeasures
  95. 2.1. Assessing countermeasure strategies
    1. General ethical issues
  96. 3.1. Disruption of everyday life and self-help
  97. 3.2. Free informed consent of workers (to risks of radiation exposure and/or chemical exposure) and consent of private owners for access to property
  98. 3.3. Distribution of dose, costs and benefits
  99. 3.4. Liability and/or compensation for unforeseen health or property effects
  100. 3.5. Animal welfare issues
  101. 3.6. Change in public perception or use of an amenity
  102. 3.7. Uncertainty
  103. 3.8. Environmental risk from ecosystem changes, groundwater contamination, etc.
  104. 3.9. Environmental consequences of waste generation and treatment (chemical and radioactive)
    1. The ethical matrix as a case specific tool for mapping ethical concerns
    1. Application to an inhabited area scenario
  105. 5.1. Ethical assessment of lawn mowing
  106. 5.2. Ethical assessment of deep ploughing
  107. 5.3. Ethical assessment of a holistic countermeasure strategy
    1. Social countermeasures
  108. 6.1. Dietary advice
  109. 6.2. Provision of counting/monitoring equipment
  110. 6.3. Do nothing
  111. 6.4. Raising intervention limits
  112. 6.5. Food labelling
  113. 6.6. Compensation scheme
  114. 6.7. Information/Advice bureau
  115. 6.8. Education programme in schools
  116. 6.9. Medical check up
  117. 6.10. Stakeholder and public consultation methods
    1. Stakeholder involvement as a social management option
  118. 7.1. Arguments for a wider inclusion of citizens and stakeholders in ethical assessments and decision making
  119. 7.2. A good consultation process is an ethical issue
  120. 7.2.1. Representativeness
  121. 7.2.2. Transparency and openness
  122. 7.2.3. Accountability and influence
    1. References
  123. Strategies for restoration of contaminated inhabited areas
    1. Introduction
    1. Overall purposes and criteria for restoration strategies
    1. Influences of type and scale of the contaminating incident
    1. Practical examples of implementation of dose reduction strategies for inhabited areas
  124. 4.1. Clean-up attempts by the Soviet army in 1989
  125. 4.2. Clean-up tests in the Bryansk area in 1997
    1. Decision support tools
  126. 5.1. Decision support handbooks
  127. 5.2. Computerised decision support systems for consequence assessment
  128. 5.3. Multi-criteria analysis tools for optimisation of countermeasure strategies
    1. References
      Concluding remarks


For many decades, investigations of the behaviour and implications of radioactive contamination in the environment have focused on agricultural areas and food production. This was due to the erroneous assumption that the consequences of credible contaminating incidents would be restricted to rural areas. However, due to the Chernobyl accident, more than 250,000 persons were removed from their homes, demonstrating a great need for knowledge and instruments that could be applied to minimise the manifold adverse consequences of contamination in inhabited areas. Also, today the world is facing a number of new threats, including radiological terrorism, which would be likely to take place in a city, where most people would become directly affected. A recent report from the US Commission on the Prevention of Weapons of Mass Destruction Proliferation and Terrorism concludes that it is most likely that a large radiological, or even nuclear, terror attack on a major city somewhere in the world will occur before 2013.

For the first time ever, the specific problems of airborne radioactive contamination in inhabited areas are treated in a holistically covering treatise, pinpointing factorial interdependencies and describing instruments for mitigation. The state-of-the-art knowledge is here explained in Airborne Radioactive Contamination in Inhabited Areas  y leading scientists in the various disciplines of relevance.

Key Features

  • Unique holistic description of airborne radioactive contamination of inhabited areas and its consequences
  • State-of-the-art information on problems associated with both accidental and malicious contamination events, in particularly 'dirty bombs'
  • Detailed description of processes and parameters governing the severity of contaminating incidents
  • Written by key experts in the world


ecologists, environmental scientists


No. of pages:
© Elsevier Science 2009
9th September 2009
Elsevier Science
Hardcover ISBN:
eBook ISBN:

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About the Series Volume Editor

K.G. Andersson

Affiliations and Expertise

Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark