Aerosols and Atmospheric Chemistry - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123472502, 9780323153942

Aerosols and Atmospheric Chemistry

1st Edition

The Kendall Award Symposium Honoring Professor Milton Kerker

Authors: Milton Kerker
eBook ISBN: 9780323153942
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1972
Page Count: 366
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Description

Aerosols and Atmospheric Chemistry is a collection of papers presented at the American Chemical Society Kendall Award Symposium honoring Professor Milton Kerker, held in Los Angeles, California, on March 28-April 2, 1971. Contributors focus on the physical chemistry of aerosols and their relationship to atmospheric chemistry. Topics covered range from the optical and dynamical properties of aerosols to the kinetics of growth of an aerosol in a flow reactor. The formation and chemical reactions of atmospheric particles are also discussed. This book is comprised of 30 chapters and begins with an overview of some of the optical and dynamical properties of aerosols, along with the preparation of submicron aerosols by condensation. The discussion then turns to the formation and properties of neutral ultrafine particles and small ions conditioned by gaseous impurities of the air; preparation of ultrafine metal oxide particles in a hydrogen-oxygen flame; production of aerosols by X-rays; and condensational growth of atmospheric aerosols. A comparison of synthetic and smog aerosols is also presented. The final section is devoted to the Los Angeles (Pasadena) Smog Project—its genesis, objectives, and scope—and provides a detailed description of the Minnesota Aerosol Analyzing System used in the project. This monograph will be a useful resource for chemists as well as students and researchers interested in aerosol and atmospheric chemistry.

Table of Contents


Contributors

Introduction

Part I.General Papers

Some Optical and Dynamical Properties of Aerosols

1.Introduction

2.Preparation of Submicron Aerosols by Condensation

3.Particle Size Analysis by Light Scattering

4.Brownian Coagulation

5.Scavenging of Aerosol Particles by a Falling Water Droplet

6.Multiple Scattering

References

Formation and Properties of Neutral Ultrafine Particles and Small Ions Conditioned by Gaseous Impurities of the Air

Introduction

Mechanism of Formation of Aerosols of Photolytic and Radiolytic Origin

Study of the Mobility of Ions in the Gas

References

Preparation in a Hydrogen-Oxygen Flame of Ultrafine Metal Oxide Particles. Oxidative Properties toward Hydrocarbons in the Presence of Ultraviolet Radiation

Introduction

Principle of the Flame Reactor

Titanium Dioxide

Other Aerosols

Photocatalytic Properties of Aerosols

References

Aerosols Produced by X-Rays

Introduction

Methods and Materials

Results and Discussion

Summary

References

The Kinetics of Growth of an Aerosol in a Flow Reactor I. Experimental

1. Introduction

2. Experimental Equipment

3. Operating Characteristics of the Apparatus

4. Physical Characteristics of the Growth Zone

5. Observed Kinetics of Growth

References

The Kinetics of Growth of an Aerosol in a Flow Reactor. II. Theoretical

1. Introduction

2. Collision Controlled Kinetics

3. Diffusion Controlled Kinetics

4. A More Sophisticated Approach

5. Conclusions

References

A Correction to Classical Homogeneous Nucleation Theory for Polar Molecules Exhibiting an Electric Double Layer at the Liquid Surface

Introduction

Theory

Surface Dipole-Dipole Correction

Heterogeneous Correction

Nucleation Rate

Experimental Method

Results and Conclusions

References

Theory of Nucleation of Water. I. Properties of Some Clathrate-like Cluster Structures

Introduction

Discussion of the Mode

The Expression for ΔA(g)and the Concentration of g Clusters

Evaluation of the Partition Functions

The Binding Potential Energy EB

Neglected Terms

Results and Conclusions

References

Spatial Filtering for Detection of Particular Shape

Text

Conclusion

References

Distribution Analyses of the Aerodynamic Size and the Mass of Aerosol Particles by Means of the Spiral Centrifuge in Comparison to Other Aerosol Precipitators

Introduction

Experimental

Results

Discussion

Conclusions

References

Comparison of Three Series for Calculation of Light-Scattering Functions

Introduction

Computations

Results

Discussion

References

A New Instrument for the Study of Individual Aerosol Particles

Text

References

Part II. Applications to the Atmosphere

Formation and Chemical Reactions of Atmospheric Particles

Introduction

Particle Formation

Aerosol Reactions

References

Condensational Growth of Atmospheric Aerosols

Introduction

Summary

References

Aerosols as Heterogeneous Nuclei

Introduction

Theory

Discussion

References

Water-Affected Fraction of Natural 1.5-9 µ Diameter Aerosol Particles

I.Introduction

II.Water-Affected Fraction of Aerosol Particles

III.Experiment

IV.Results

V.Conclusions

References

Comparison of Synthetic and Smog Aerosols

Text

Methods

Results

Calculation of Mass and Surface Area of Ambient Aerosol

Infrared Spectra of Impacted Aerosols

Oxidation Mechanism

References

A Comparison of Filterable Mass and Light Scattering of Photochemically Produced Aerosols

Introduction

Experimental Procedure

Results and Discussion

Summary

References

Part III. The 1969 Pasadena Smog Aerosol Experiment

The Minnesota Aerosol-Analyzing System Used in the Los Angeles Smog Project

Part I. The Los Angeles Smog Project

Part II. Minnesota Aerosol-Analyzing System

References

Aerometric Factors Affecting the Evolution of the Pasadena Aerosol

Introduction

Climatology and Meteorological Factors

Meteorological Observations

Behavior of Trace Gases

Significance of Average Concentrations

Relation of Gases to Aerosol Behavior

Mechanisms for Particle-Gas Interaction

Summary

References

The Aerosol Size Distribution of Los Angeles Smog

Text

Introduction

Data Collection and Processing

Results

Discussion

Summary and Conclusions

References

Mass Distribution Data from the 1969 Pasadena Smog Experiment

Method

Mass Distribution Data

Comparison of Impactor and M.A.A.S. Measurements

Mass Data Accuracy and Uncertainty

Summary and Conclusions

References

Physical Mechanisms Governing the Dynamics of Los Angeles Smog Aerosol

Introduction

The Effect of Relative Humidity

Photochemical Nucleation and Growth Rates

The Role of Coagulation and Condensation

Summary

References

Chemical Composition of Pasadena Aerosol by Particle Size and Time of Day. III. Chemical States of Nitrogen and Sulfur by Photoelectron Spectroscopy

Introduction

Method

Description of Samples

Analytical Results

Summary and Conclusions

References

Chemical Composition of Pasadena Aerosol by Particle Size and Time of Day. IV. Carbonate and Noncarbonate Carbon Content

Introduction

Sample Collection and Analysis

Carbon Content of Pasadena Aerosol

Summary and Conclusions

References

A Chemical Element Balance for the Pasadena Aerosol

Introduction

Method of Calculation

Emission Sources and Atmospheric Data

Calculation of Source Coefficients, Cj

Discussion of Results

Summary and Conclusions

References

Multiwavelength Nephelometer Measurements in Los Angeles Smog Aerosol. Preface

Text

References

Multiwavelength Nephelometer Measurements in Los Angeles Smog Aerosol. I. Comparison of Calculated and Measured Light Scattering

I. Introduction and Objectives

II. Experimental Methods

III. Light-Scattering Calculations

IV. Discussion of Results

V. Conclusions

References

Multiwavelength Nephelometer Measurements in Los Angeles Smog Aerosol. II. Correlation with Size Distributions, Volume Concentrations

I. Introduction

II. Data

III. Calculations and Results

IV. Discussion

References

Multiwavelength Nephelometer Measurements in Los Angeles Smog Aerosol. III. Comparison to Light Extinction by NO2

I. Introduction

II. Description of Measurements

III. Data and Their Interpretation

IV. Discussion

References

Inadvertent Weather Modification and Los Angeles Smog

1. Introduction

2. Experimental

3. Results and Discussion

References

Subject Index

Details

No. of pages:
366
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1972
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323153942

About the Author

Milton Kerker