Table of Contents
- Preface. List of Contributors. Part A. Hydrological Processes. 1. Doogeology - Linear Theory of Open Channel Flow (J.J. Napiórkowski). Abstract. Introduction. Linearization of the St. Venant Equations. Solution for Finite Channel Reach. The Generalized Linear Channel Response. Simplified Forms of St. Venant Equations. Conclusions. References. 2. Analytical and Numerical Modelling of Unsaturated Flow (Q.J. Wang). Abstract. Introduction. Physics of Soil Moisture Flow. Reduced Form of Richards' Equation. Closed Form Solutions for Constant D and Linear K* Model. Effect of Assumptions on D and K* Functions. A Proposed Hybrid Solution Scheme for Future Research. References. 3. The Hydrology of Milled Peat Production (J.P. O'Kane). Abstract. Introduction. The Peat-Water System. Water Movement in a Peat Column. Boundary Conditions at the Pedon Scale. The Drying of a Layer of Milled Peat. Conclusions. Acknowledgements. References. 4. Role of Active-Passive Scalar Relationships in Evaporation from Vegetated Surfaces (G.A. McBean). Abstract. Introduction. Efficiency of Evaporation. Concept of Active and Passive Scalars. Impact of K
E/K HRatio on Traditional Methods of Estimating Evaporation from Vegetated Surfaces. Concluding Remarks. References. 5. On the Weights of Precipitation Stations (M. Sugawara). Abstract. The Thiessen Polygon Method is Illogical. Weights Should be Determined Considering the Reliability of Observed Data. Weights of Precipitation Stations Should be Determined to Obtain Good Results in Discharge Calculation or Flood Forecasting. How to Determine the Weights of Precipitation Stations. The Problem. The Singular Matrix (A ij). The Method of Principal Axis Transformation. Factor Analysis. Orthogonal Expansion of the Runoff. The Precipitation Weights. The Determination of the Cut-Off Point k1. References. 6. A Neyman-Scott Shot Noise Model for the Generation of Daily Streamflow Time Series (P.S.P. Cowpertwait, P.E. O'Connell). Abstract. Introduction. Definition of a Second Order Neyman-Scott Shot Noise (NSSN) Model. Some Moments of the Neyman-Scott Shot Noise Model. Some Special Cases. Fitting the NSSN Model to Historical Daily Flows. Model Validation. Discussion and Epilogue. Acknowledgements. References. Part B. Large-Scale Hydrology. 7. Criteria for a Hydrologically Sound Structuring of Large Scale Land Surface Process Models (A. Becker). Abstract. Introduction. Scales in Hydrology and Related Categories of Hydrological Models. Critical Concepts in Macroscale Hydrological Modelling at Land Surfaces. Hydrologically Sound Structuring of Macroscale Models. Basic Types of Areal Heterogeneity at Land Surfaces and Assessment of Landscape Patchiness. Hierarchy in the Areal Discretization of Land Surfaces for Modelling. Criteria to Delineate Zones of Uniform Climate Forcing. References. 8. The Construction of Continental Scale Models of the Terrestrial Hydrological Cycle: An Analysis of the State of-the-Art and Future Prospects (L.S. Kuchment). Introduction. Time-Space Scales and Main Research Directions. Continental Scale Hydrological Models with Present-Day Space Resolution of GCMs (100-300 km). Modelling of the Terrestrial Hydrological Cycle for a Horizontal Scale of 30-100 km. Opportunities for Developing Parameterisations of the Hydrological Cycle for Horizontal Resolutions of Less than 30km. Acknowledgements. References. 9. A Rainfall-Runoff Scheme for Use in the Hamburg Climate Model (L. Dümenil, E. Todini). Abstract. Introduction. Runoff in the Context of General Circulation Models. Description of the Arno Scheme. The Simulated Hydrological Cycle. Conclusions. Acknowledgement. References. 10. Transient Response of a Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Land Surface Model to Increasing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide (S. Manabe et al.). Abstract. Introduction. Model Structure. Numerical Experiments. Temperature Change. Hydrologic Change. Summary and Concluding Remarks. References. Part C. The Past and The Future. 11. Quantitative Hydrology in Scandinavia in the 18th Century (L. Gottschalk). Abstract. Introduction. Hydrometeorological Observations. Water Balance Studies. The Origin of Springs. Conclusions. References. 12. Hydrology and Hydrologists - Reflections (J.E. Nash). Abstract. Introduction. The Alleged Failure of Engineering Hydrology. Science or Technology. Empirical Hydrology. The Two Pillars of Hydrology. The Real Failure of Engineering Hydrology. The Future for Hydrology. The Education and Training of Hydrologists. Environmental
Awareness. References. 13. Hydrology and the Real World (J.R. Philip). Abstract. Introduction. Hydrology and Non-Linearity. Natural Science and Trans-Science. Scientific Hydrology and Professional Practice. Hydrology and the Real World. Hydrology and Faith. Acknowledgements. References. 14. Water and Soil: Circulation and Risks of Pollution (G. Vachaud, M. Vauclin). Introduction. Presentation of the Problem. Circulation of Water in the Soil. Transport of Dissolved Substances. Conclusions. References. 15. Global Change, A Catalyst for the Development of Hydrologic Science (P.S. Eagleson). Abstract. Introduction. Historical Development of Hydrologic Science. The Geophysical Basis of Hydrologic Science. The Biogeochemical Basis of Hydrologic Science. Some Global Change Issues in Hydrologic Science. Hydrologic Science is a Distinct Geoscience. Needed Actions. Acknowledgements. References. 16. The Theory of the Hydrologic Model, or: the Struggle for the Soul of Hydrology (M.B. Abbott). Abstract. Introduction: Maintaining Continuity in Thinking Through a Discontinuity in Thought. Navigating Through a World of Models: the Function of the Sign. Understanding Through the Ordering of Signs. Hydrological Rhetoric and its Ordering in Grammar. The Struggle for the Soul of Hydrology. Does the Future Hold out any Hope at All? References.
- Language: English
- Copyright: © Elsevier Science 1992
- Published: November 26, 1992
- Imprint: Elsevier Science
- eBook ISBN: 9781483291482
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