COVID-19 Update: We are currently shipping orders daily. However, due to transit disruptions in some geographies, deliveries may be delayed. To provide all customers with timely access to content, we are offering 50% off Science and Technology Print & eBook bundle options. Terms & conditions.
Advances in Sustainable Polymer Composites - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128203385, 9780128203422

Advances in Sustainable Polymer Composites

1st Edition

Editor: Md Rezaur Rahman
Paperback ISBN: 9780128203385
eBook ISBN: 9780128203422
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 2nd September 2020
Page Count: 306
Sales tax will be calculated at check-out Price includes VAT/GST
Price includes VAT/GST

Institutional Subscription

Secure Checkout

Personal information is secured with SSL technology.

Free Shipping

Free global shipping
No minimum order.

Table of Contents

1 Importance of sustainable polymers for modern society and

development 1

Md. Rezaur Rahman, Nur-Azzah Afifah Binti Taib,

Muhammad Khusairy Bin Bakri and Siti Noor Linda bt Taib

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Current application of polymers 2

1.3 Waste production from the applications of polymers 13

1.4 Environmental effects of nonbiodegradable polymers 16

1.5 Current application of biodegradable polymers 18

1.6 Environmental effects of biodegradable polymers 25

1.7 Sustainability of polymers 26

1.8 Conclusion 29

References 31

2 Physical and chemical properties of sustainable polymers and

their blends 37

Md. Saiful Islam and Md. Moynul Islam

2.1 Introduction 37

2.2 Properties, modification techniques, and the application of

PLA and chitosan 38

2.3 Modifications process of PLA 39

2.4 Various blending 42

2.5 The effect of nanoparticles on blending composites 48

2.6 Conclusion 52

Acknowledgment 53

References 53

3 Sustainable reinforcers for polymer composites 59

Md. Saiful Islam and Md. Moynul Islam

3.1 Introduction 59

3.2 Natural fibers 61

3.3 Properties of natural fibers 71

3.4 Properties of natural fiber composites 71

3.5 Fiber processing 71

3.6 Chemical treatments 73

3.7 Effect of chemical treatments on natural fibers 76

3.8 Scanning electron microscopy 77

3.9 Tensile properties 78

3.10 Flexural properties 79

3.11 Impact properties 80

3.12 Applications 80

3.13 Future market trends 82

3.14 Summary 82

Acknowledgment 82

References 83

4 Sustainable resin systems for polymer composites 89

Faisal I. Chowdhury

4.1 Introduction 89

4.2 Hybrid resin composites 90

4.3 Flowable (low-viscosity) composite resin 91

4.4 Nanocomposite resins 93

4.5 Carbon nanocomposite resins 93

4.6 Metal oxide nanocomposite resins 96

4.7 Natural fiber

4.8 Self-healing composite resins 99

4.9 Antimicrobial composite resins 102

4.10 3D printable antimicrobial composite resins 103

4.11 Stimuli-responsive composite resins 103

References 105

5 Use of sustainable polymers to make green composites 109

Muhammad Khusairy Bin Bakri, Md Rezaur Rahman,

Perry Law Nyuk Khui, Elammaran Jayamani and Afrasyab Khan

5.1 Introduction of polymers 109

5.2 Types of polymers 110

5.3 Characterization and testing method based on standards 114

5.4 Composites manufacturing process 123

5.5 Summary 124

References 124

6 Electrical properties in reinforced polymer composites 131

Perry Law Nyuk Khui, Md. Rezaur Rahman, Elammaran Jayamani,

Muhammad Khusairy Bin Bakri and Afrasyab Khan

6.1 Introduction 131

6.2 Utilization of fillers in polymer composites (electrical conductivity) 132

6.3 Hybrid fillers in polymer composites (electrical conductivity) 132

6.4 Dielectrical properties of polymer composites 133

6.5 Resistivity of polymer composites 135

6.6 Applications of polymer composites in electrical and electronic

industry 136

6.7 Summary 137

References 138

7 Rheological behavior and transport of molten polymers and


Khairuddin Sanaullah and Afrasyab Khan

7.1 Introduction 141

7.2 Flow properties of polymer liquids 142

7.3 Transport equations of molten polymer flows 149

7.4 Multiphase flows 156

Appendix A Derivation of Hagen

flow 174

Appendix B One-dimensional momentum equation for gas Newtonian

liquid two-phase flow for separated flow regime 176

References 179

8 Applications of sustainable polymer composites in automobile and

aerospace industry 185

Adamu Muhammad, Md Rezaur Rahman, Rubiyah bt Hj Baini and

Muhammad Khusairy Bin Bakri

8.1 Introduction 185

8.2 Automobile industry 187

8.3 Aerospace industry 195

8.4 Challenges of implementing sustainable polymer composites for

automobiles and aircrafts 200

8.5 Conclusion 201

References 201

9 Hybrid sustainable polymer composites 209

Sweety Shahinur and Mahbub Hasan

9.1 Introduction 209

9.2 Hybrid composite 211

9.3 Sustainability of polymer composite 216

9.4 Case study 224

9.5 Summary and concluding remarks 224

References 226

10 Nano-reinforcement in sustainable polymer composites 231

Muhammad Khusairy Bin Bakri, Md. Rezaur Rahman,

Siti Noor Linda Taib, Perry Law Nyuk Khui, Akshay Kakar and

Elammaran Jayamani

10.1 Introduction 231

10.2 Types of nonrenewable nano-reinforcements 232

10.3 Types of renewable nano-reinforcements 237

10.4 Applications of nano-reinforced polymer composites 238

10.5 Summary 239

References 239

11 Life cycle assessment of sustainable composites 245

Elammaran Jayamani, Tee Jun Jie and Muhammad Khusairy Bin Bakri

11.1 Composite materials 245

11.2 Characteristic of composite material 245

11.3 Characteristic of composite material 245

11.4 Importance of composite material in aerospace industry 246

11.5 Current application of synthetic fiber polymer composite in

aerospace industry 247

11.6 Current application of natural fiber polymer composites in

aerospace industry 248

11.7 Life cycle assessment 249

11.8 Application of life cycle assessment in aviation industry 252

11.9 Methodology 252

11.10 Result and discussion 256

11.11 Conclusion 263

References 264

12 Recycling of sustainable polymers and composites 267

Perry Law Nyuk Khui, Md. Rezaur Rahman, Elammaran Jayamani and

Muhammad Khusairy Bin Bakri

12.1 Introduction 267

12.2 Sustainable polymers 268

12.3 Recycling thermoplastic polymers and composites 269

12.4 Recycling thermoset polymers and composites 270

12.5 Primary recycling 271

12.6 Mechanical recycling 272

12.7 Chemical recycling 272

12.8 Challenges of recycling polymers and composites 275

12.9 Summary 277

References 277

Index 283


Advances in Sustainable Polymer Composites reviews recent scientific findings on the production and use of sustainable polymers and composites as innovative new materials. The book discusses the importance of sustainable polymers in terms of current practices and how to address environmental and economic issues. Attention is focused on the physical, chemical and electrical properties of these composites. The book also looks at the lifecycle of both single and hybrid polymers and nanocomposites, with chapters covering the latest research findings on sustainable polymer composites with various filler loadings and their improvement on compatibility.

From the viewpoint of polymer composites, this book covers not only well-known sustainable future trends in sustainable polymers and composites, but also advanced materials produced from micro, nano and pico-scale fillers that achieve better physical and mechanical results.

Key Features

  • Features advanced materials produced from micro, nano and pico-scale fillers
  • Emphasizes the modeling and prediction of thermal, rheological and mechanical behavior
  • Covers various types of fillers and different reinforcement agents
  • Focuses on all aspects of fabrication, characterization and applications
  • Addresses sustainability approaches and solutions


Academic and industrial researchers working in the development and commercialization of sustainable polymer composites and their associated products


No. of pages:
© Woodhead Publishing 2021
2nd September 2020
Woodhead Publishing
Paperback ISBN:
eBook ISBN:

Ratings and Reviews

About the Editor

Md Rezaur Rahman

Md Rezaur Rahman is currently working as a Senior Lecturer (Assistant Professor), at the Department of Chemical Engineering and Energy Sustainability, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS), Malaysia. He has also been a Visiting Research Fellow at the Faculty of Engineering, Tokushima University, Japan since June 2012. Previously he worked as a teaching assistant, at the Faculty of Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET) and as a research leader on various projects for the Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia. He was appointed as an external supervisor for the Faculty of Engineering, Swinburne University of Technology, Australia in 2015. He has more than 10 years of experience in teaching, research and industry. His area of research includes: Conducting Polymers, Silica/Clay dispersed elastomeric polymer nanocomposites, Hybrid Filled loaded Polymer Composites, Advance Materials: Graphene/Nanoclay/Fire Retardant, Nanocellulose (cellulose nanocrystals and nanofibrillar) cellulose Reinforced/Filled Polymer Composites, Chemical Modification and Treatment of Lignocellulosic Fibres including Jute, coir, Sisal, kenaf, hemp and Solid Wood, Nano Composites and Nanocellulose fibres, and Polymer blends. So far he has published 3 book chapters, and more than 65 papers in international journals. He is also a reviewer for several high impact ISI journals.

Affiliations and Expertise

Assistant Professor, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Malaysia