Advances in Steroid Biochemistry and Pharmacology

Advances in Steroid Biochemistry and Pharmacology

First published on January 1, 1974

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  • Editors: M. H. Briggs, G. A. Christie
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483215754

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Description

Advances in Steroid Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Volume 4 provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of steroid biochemistry and pharmacology. This book covers a variety of topics, including cellular biochemistry, pituitary hormones, corticosteroids, and steroid hormones. Organized into seven chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the potential effects of steroids on cellular biochemistry. This text then examines the development of sleep-monitoring methods, together with methods of plasma sampling that enable very frequent specimen to be taken without disturbing the subject. Other chapters consider the usefulness of sleep-related growth hormone release in diagnosis in both children and adult. This book discusses as well the versatile effect of corticosteroids on the cellular components of the connective tissue. The final chapter deals with the functioning of the adrenal cortex and its control by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). This book is a valuable resource for biochemists, histochemists, biologists, pharmacologists, clinicians, and experimental endocrinologists.

Table of Contents


  • Contributors

    Cellular Biochemical Assessment of Steroid Activity

    I. Introduction: The Possible Cellular Biochemical Effects of Steroids

    A. Direct Effect on Enzymes

    B. Indirect Effect on Enzymes

    C. The Role of Cellular (Multiphase) Biochemistry

    II. Methods of Cellular Biochemistry

    A. Methods of Preparing and Reacting the Specimen

    B. Quantitation

    C. Culture Methods

    III. Cellular Biochemical Measurement of Direct Effects of Steroids

    A. Types 1 and 2 NADPH Pathways in Sections

    IV. Indirect Effects

    A. Endoplasmic Reticulum

    B. Effects on Mitochondria

    C. Effect on Lysosomes

    D. Effect on Plasma Membrane and Oedema

    V. Conclusions

    Acknowledgement

    References

    Daily Rhythms of Steroid and Associated Pituitary Hormones in Man and Their Relationship to Sleep

    I. Introduction

    II. Sleep

    A. Historical Introduction

    B. Methods of Studying Sleep

    C. The Measurement of Sleep

    D. Physiological Basis of Sleep

    III. Circadian Rhythm of the Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) Axis

    A. General Features of the Rhythm

    B. Regulation of the Circadian Rhythm of the HPA Axis

    C. Synchronizers of the HPA Circadian Rhythm

    D. Alterations of the HPA Circadian Rhythm in Disease

    IV. Secretion of Growth Hormone (GH)

    A. Relation of GH Secretion to Sleep

    B. Metabolic Correlates of Sleep-Associated GH Release

    C. Effect of Steroids and Drugs on Nocturnal GH Release

    D. Sleep-Related GH Release in Certain Pathological States

    V. The Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Gonadal (HPG) Axis

    A. General Observations on Sleep Relationships of HPG Secretion

    VI. Conclusion

    References

    Chemistry and Biological Activity of Vitamin D, its Metabolites and Analogs

    I. Introduction

    II. History of the Experiments Conducted on the Metabolism of Vitamin D3

    A. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OH-D3)

    B. Biologically Active Metabolites more Polar than 25-OH-D3

    C. Isolation and Identification of Plasma Metabolites

    D. Role of Kidney in Vitamin D Metabolism

    E. Isolation and Identification of 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2D3)

    F. Isolation and Identification of 24,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (24,25-(OH)2D3)

    G. Metabolism of 1,25-(OH)2D3

    H. The Discrimination of Birds and New World Monkeys Between Vitamin D2 and Vitamin D3

    III. Feed-Back Regulation of 25-OH-D3 Metabolism to 1,25-(OH)2D3 or 24,25-(OH)2D3

    A. Role of Dietary and Serum Calcium

    B. Parathyroid Hormone, Calcitonin and Cyclic AMP

    C. Role of Inorganic Phosphate

    IV. Chemical Synthesis of Vitamin D3, Analogs and Metabolites

    A. Complete Synthesis of Vitamin D3 and Previtamin D3

    B. Synthesis of 25-OH-D3

    C. Chemical Synthesis of 1α,25-(OH)2D3 and 1α-OH-D3

    V. Biologically Active Analogs of Vitamin D

    A. Metabolism and Biological Activity of Dihydrotachysterol

    B. Isomers of Vitamin D3

    C. Isotachysterol and Iso-Vitamin D3

    D. Side-Chain Analogs of Vitamin D

    VI. Tools for Isolation and Identification of Vitamin D Metabolites

    A. Mass Spectrometry of Vitamin D and its Metabolites

    B. Mass Spectrometry of Various Isomers of Vitamin D3

    C. Ultraviolet Absorption Spectrophotometry for Vitamin D its Isomers

    D. Gas-Liquid Chromatography for Vitamin D and Analogs

    E. Chromatography of the Polar Metabolites of 25-OH-D3

    F. The Use of NMR for Identifying Vitamin D Metabolites

    VII. Discussion

    Acknowledgement

    References

    Effects of Corticosteroids on Connective Tissue and Fibroblasts

    I. Introduction

    II. The Connective Tissue

    A. Morphology of Fibroblasts

    B. Collagen

    C. Ground Substance

    III. Experimental Techniques and Findings

    A. Steroid Inhibition of Fibroblast Growth

    B. Steroid Enhancement of Fibroblast Growth

    C. Intracellular Localization of Steroid Hormones

    D. Steroid Effects on Ground Substances and Collagen Synthesis

    E. Steroid Effects on the Cell Cycle

    F. Effects of Steroids on Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis

    G. Steroid Hormones and Cell Enzymes

    IV. Conclusions

    References

    Interactions Between the Prostaglandins and Steroid Hormones

    I. Introduction

    II. Effect of Prostaglandins on Steroid Production

    A. Effect of Prostaglandins on the Hypothalamus

    B. Effect of Prostaglandins on the Anterior Pituitary

    C. Effect of Prostaglandins on Steroid Biosynthesis

    III. Effect of Prostaglandins on Steroid Action

    IV. Effect of Prostaglandins on Steroid Metabolism

    V. Effect of Steroids on Prostaglandin Dynamics

    VI. Conclusions

    References

    Steroid Hormones and Breast Cancer

    I. Introduction

    II. The Examination of Human Breast Tumours in Tissue Culture

    III. Ablation Procedures

    A. Castration

    B. Adrenalectomy

    C. Chemical Inhibition of the Adrenal Cortex

    D. Hypophysectomy

    E. Chemical Hypophysectomy

    IV. Prediction of Response to Endocrine Surgery

    A. The Discriminant Factor

    B. The Estimation of Hormone Binding Sites

    V. Additive Therapy

    A. Oestrogen Treatment

    B. Androgen Therapy

    C. Adrenal Corticosteroids

    D. Progestogens

    VI. Cancer of the Male Breast

    VII. The Immunological Treatment of Breast Cancer

    VIII. Conclusion

    References

    Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone and the Control of Adrenal Corticosteroidogenesis

    I. Introduction

    II. ACTH Receptor

    III. Cholesterol Metabolism in the Adrenal Cortex

    IV. Adenosine 3′,5′-Cyclic Monophosphate (Cyclic AMP)

    A. Haynes—Berthet Hypothesis

    B. Adenyl Cyclase

    C. Phosphodiesterase

    D. Evidence for the Intermediary Role of Cyclic AMP

    E. Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein and Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Phosphokinase

    V. The Involvement of NADPH in ACTH Action

    A. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase

    B. Exogenous NADPH

    VI. The Regulation of Pregnenolone Synthesis

    A. Koritz−Hall Hypothesis

    B. Mitochondrial Permeability

    VII. The Role of Protein and RNA Synthesis

    A. Studies Involving Antibiotic Inhibitors of Protein Synthesis

    B. Protein Synthesis in the Absence of Antibiotics

    C. RNA Synthesis

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Note Added in Proof

    Author Index

    Subject Index

    Cumulative Index of Titles

Product details

  • No. of pages: 340
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1974
  • Published: January 1, 1974
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483215754

About the Editors

M. H. Briggs

G. A. Christie

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