Advances in Quantum Electronics

Advances in Quantum Electronics

Volume 3

1st Edition - January 1, 1975

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  • Editor: D. W. Goodwin
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483215679

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Advances in Quantum Electronics, Volume 3 covers articles on the theoretical and experimental work undertaken in the field of optical pumping and on gaseous ion lasers. The book presents an overview of the optical-pumping field and a review of the use and properties of the density matrix as applied to the statistical behavior of assemblages of atoms or ions. The text discusses the application of the density matrix approach to the theory of optical-pumping r.f. spectroscopy and spin-exchange optical pumping. Optical-pumping experiments are also considered. The book further provides a comprehensive survey of all the important aspects of laser action in gaseous ions, dealing in particular with the spectroscopy of the ion lasers the important and interesting physical processes which occur in them, their properties, technology and applications. People engaged in theoretical and experimental studies in the field of quantum electronics and physicists will find the book invaluable.

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors


    Optical Pumping

    I. Introduction

    II. Optical Pumping: An Overview

    A. Introduction

    B. Magnetic Resonance

    C. Optical Pumping

    D. Optical Pumping of Alkali Atoms

    E. Spin-exchange Optical Pumping

    F. Optical Pumping of Mercury and Other 1S0 Atoms

    G. Optical Pumping of Helium

    H. Frequency Shifts in Optical-pumping Experiments

    I. Crossed Beam Detection

    J. Spin Relaxation

    III. Density Matrix Methods

    A. The Density Operator

    B. The Density Matrix

    C. The Density Matrix for a Spin-½ System

    D. Spin-exchange Collisions

    E. Spin-relaxation Times

    IV. Optical Pumping of a Spin-½ System

    A. The Optical-pumping Process

    B. Optical Pumping of a Spin-½ Atom

    C. The Equilibrium Transmission Signal

    D. The Spin-½ Transient Transmission Signal

    E. The Equilibrium Crossed-beam Signal

    V. Optical Pumping of Alkali Atoms

    A. Effective Hamiltonian for an Alkali Atom in a Weak Magnetic Field

    B. Density Matrix for the Alkali Atom Ground State

    C. Magnetic Resonance in a Weak Field

    D. The Optical-pumping Cycle

    Ε. Absorption of the Pumping Light

    F. Spin Relaxation

    G. The Low-Field Optical-pumping Signal

    H. Alkali Atoms in a Magnetic Field of Intermediate Strength: Resolved Zeeman Transitions

    I. Optical-pumping Signals under Varying Pumping Light Conditions

    J. Hyperfine Transitions

    VI. Spin-exchange Optical Pumping

    A. Spin Exchange Between Two Species of Spin-½ Particles

    B. The Spin-exchange Optical-pumping Signal for the Spin-½ System

    C. The Effect of Nuclear Spin on Electron-Alkali Atom Spin-exchange Collisions

    D. The Spin-exchange Electron Resonance Signal when the Effects of Nuclear Spin are Considered

    E. The Effect of Nuclear Spin on Spin-exchange Collisions between Alkali Atoms

    F. Application of Spin-exchange Results to the Relaxation of the Alkali Spin by Spin-randomizing Collisions

    VII. Optical-Pumping Experiments

    A. Alkali Optical Pumping at High and Low Temperatures

    B. Precision Measurements

    C. Hyperfine Pressure (Density) Shifts

    D. Electron-Alkali Atom Spin-exchange Collisions

    E. Spin-exchange between Alkali Atoms

    F. Spin-relaxation Times

    G. Optical-pumping Orientation of Ions

    H. Optical Pumping of Atomic P states

    I. g-Factor Shifts due to Resonant and Nonresonant r.f. Fields

    VIII. The Construction and Operation of an Alkali Optical-pumping Apparatus

    A. Light Sources

    B. Signal Detection

    C. The Magnetic Field

    D. R.F. Generation and Measurement

    E. Sample Preparation

    F. Optical Pumping at High and Low Temperatures

    G. Obtaining the Signal


    Review Articles and Books


    Gaseous Ion Lasers

    I. Introduction

    Α. Historical Background

    II. Comparison of Gaseous Neutral and Ion Lasers

    III. Spectroscopy of Ion Lasers

    IV. Excitation and Quenching Mechanisms in Noble Gas Ion Lasers

    A. Rate Equations and Excitation Mechanisms

    B. Singly-ionized Ion Lasers

    C. Quenching in Singly-ionized Ion Lasers

    D . Excitation and Quenching in Multiply-ionized Ion Lasers

    E. Z-pinch Pulsed Ion Lasers

    F. Fast-pulse-excited Lasers

    V. Excitation Mechanisms in CW Metal Vapour Lasers

    A. Fundamental Processes

    B. CW "Metal Vapour" Lasers

    VI. Miscellaneous Ion Lasers

    VII. Plasma Parameters in Ion Lasers

    A. Noble Gas Ion Lasers

    B. CW Metal Vapour Lasers

    C. The Effect of Magnetic Fields on Ion Laser Plasma Parameters

    VIII. Theories of Ion Laser Plasmas

    A. Low Pressures: Tonks-Langmuir Regime

    B. Intermediate Pressures

    C. High Pressures: Schottky Regime

    D. Highly Ionized Plasmas

    E. Ion Motion in Plasmas: Kagan-Perel Theory

    IX. Spontaneous Emission Line Profiles and Lifetimes in Ion Lasers

    A. Doppler Broadening

    B. Natural Broadening

    C. Pressure Broadening

    D. Kagan-Perel Broadening

    E. Zeeman Splitting of Ion Laser Transitions in Magnetic Fields

    F. Isotope Effects in Ion Lasers

    G. Lifetimes in Noble Gas Ion Lasers

    X. Ion Laser Technology

    A. Tube Design for CW Noble Gas Ion Lasers

    B. D.C. Gas Discharges in Noble Gas Ion Lasers

    C. Electrodes

    D. R.F. Excited Noble Gas Ion Laser Discharges

    Ε. Optical Resonators for Ion Lasers

    F. Magnetic Field Plasma Confinement and Power Enhancement

    G. High Power Wide Bore Noble Gas Ion Lasers

    H. Pulsed Noble Gas Ion Lasers

    I. UV Noble Gas Ion Lasers

    XI. Output Characteristics of Noble Gas Ion Lasers

    A. Operating Lines and Power Outputs

    B. Line and Mode Interactions

    C. Noise and Amplitude Instabilities

    D. Single Frequency Operation

    E. Frequency Stabilization

    F. Mode-locking

    XII. Techniques and Operating Characteristics of Metal Vapor Lasers

    A. Techniques

    B. Operating Characteristics

    XIII. Applications

    A. Physical and Chemical Research

    B. Engineering Applications

    C. Biological and Medical Applications

    References to Tables I.1-I.23


    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 486
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1975
  • Published: January 1, 1975
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483215679

About the Editor

D. W. Goodwin

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