Advances in Morphogenesis

Advances in Morphogenesis

Volume 3

1st Edition - January 1, 1964

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  • Editors: M. Abercrombie, Jean Brachet
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483224534

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Description

Advances in Morphogenesis, Volume 3 covers the significant advances in various aspects of morphogenesis. This volume is divided into nine chapters that specifically consider the histochemical, morphological, and biochemical aspects of cell growth and development in various animal groups. The opening chapter deals with the different mechanisms of determination in the development of the gastropods. The next chapters present the model system for biochemical of morphological differentiation, including non-filamentous aquatic fungi and sea urchin. These topics are followed by discussions of the results obtained from chick embryo erythrocyte during the entire prenatal period, with emphasis on the problems of autodifferentiation of chick embryo blood corpuscles. A chapter examines the role of DNA, RNA, and sulfhydryl groups in morphogenesis in amphibians and regeneration in the unicellular alga, Acetabularia mediterranea. The concluding chapters describe the relationship between cleavage, relative duration of developmental periods, and cell differentiation in stages of embryonic development. These chapters also look into the positive evidence concerning the morphogenetic role of the egg cortex of the amphibians. This book is directed primarily to developmental biologists.

Table of Contents


  • Contributors to Volume 3

    Mechanisms of Determination in the Development of Gastropods

    I. Introduction

    II. Ooplasmic Segregation

    III. The Importance of Ooplasmic Segregation

    IV. The Causality of Ooplasmic Segregation

    V. Nature, Composition and Properties of the Cortex

    VI. The Cortical Field

    VII. The Nature of the Cortical Morphogenese Field

    VIII. The Origin of the Cortical Morphogenese Field

    IX. The Causality of Cellular Differentiation

    X. Conclusions

    References

    Non-filamentous Aquatic Fungi: Model Systems for Biochemical Studies of Morphological Differentiation

    I. Introduction

    II. Some Aquatic Fungi Useful for Morphogenese Studies

    A. Rhizidiomyces Sp

    B. Rhizophlyctis Posea

    C. Karlingia (Karlingiomyces) Sp

    D. Blastocladia Pringsheimii

    E. Blastocladiella Britannica

    III. Blastocladiella Emersonii — A Model System for Experimental Studies of Differentiation

    A. The Swimming Spore Stage

    B. The Spore Germination Stage

    C. Synchronized Single-Generation Cultures

    D. Environmental Control of Exponential Growth

    E. The Transition Between Exponential Growth and Differentiation

    F. Developments Beyond the Point of No Return

    G. Differentiation and Discharge of Zoospores

    IV. Summary

    References

    Biochemical Studies on the Early Development of the Sea Urchin

    I. Introduction

    II. Remarks about Methods

    III. Protein Synthesis During Early Development of the Sea Urchin

    A. General Metabolic Background

    B. Protein Synthesis During the Early Post-Fertilization Stages

    C. Protein Synthesis During the Initial Visible Differentiation Phase

    IV. The Nucleic Acids

    A. Topographical Distribution

    B. Biochemical Studies on Synthesis

    V. Some Notes on the Subcellular Components

    A. The Nucleus

    B. The Mitochondria

    C. The Microsomes

    D. The Yolk Platelets

    E. The Pigment Granules

    VI. Conclusions

    References

    Biochemical Aspects of Animalization and Vegetalization in the Sea Urchin Embryo

    I. Introduction

    II. Normal Development

    III. Experimental Study of Morphogenesis

    A. Definitions

    B. Experimental Methods

    C. Heuristic and Practical Value of Operative and Chemical Methods

    IV. The Gradients

    V. Respiration and Carbohydrate Catabolism

    A. Normal Development

    B. Vegetalization

    C. Animalization

    VI. Metabolism of Amino-acids and Proteins

    VII. Metabolism of Nucleotides and Ribonucleic Acid

    VIII. Enzymes, Mitochondria and Embryonic Development

    IX. Biochemical Background of the Gradients of Reduction

    X. Structural Aspects of Embryonic Determination and Differentiation

    XI. Conclusion

    References

    The Blood of Chick Embryos: Quantitative Embryology at a Cellular Level

    I. Introduction

    II. Qualitative and Quantitative Data on Chick Embryo Blood Corpuscles throughout the Incubation Period

    A. Erythrocytes

    B. Thrombocytes

    C. Leucocytes

    D. Other Formed Elements in the Chick Embryo Blood

    E. Total Blood Volume and Related Values throughout the Incubation Period

    F. Mitoses in Circulating Blood Cells and their Role in Primitive Erythrocyte Proliferation

    G. Life Span of Chick Embryo Erythrocytes

    H. Balance Sheet of Erythrocyte Production and Destruction throughout the Incubation Period

    III. Autodifïerentiation of Embryonic Blood-forming Tissues

    A. Autodifïerentiation in vitro

    B. Self-differentiation in the Yolk Sac Wall without Circulation (Anidian)

    References

    The Role of Nucleic Acids and Sulphydryl Groups in Morphogenesis (Amphibian Egg Development, Regeneration in Acetabularia)

    I. Introduction

    II. DNA in Amphibian Eggs and Acetabularia

    A. Amphibian Egg Development

    B. Acetabularia

    III. RNA Distribution and Synthesis in Amphibian Eggs and Acetabularia

    A. Amphibian Egg Development

    B. Acetabularia

    IV. Sulphydryl Groups and Morphogenesis

    A. Introductory Remarks

    B. The Effects of ß-Mer cap toe thanol on Morphogenesis

    C. The Effects of α-Lipoic Acid on Morphogenesis (Amphibian Eggs and Acetabularia)

    D. Biochemical Effects of ß-Mercaptoethanol on Developing Organisms

    V. Discussion

    References

    The Acrasina (continued from Vol. 2, pp. 109-182)

    V. TheGrex

    B. The Whole

    C. Water as a Developmental Control

    Summary

    References

    Cell Divisions, Duration of Interkinetic States and Differentiation in Early Stages of Embryonic Development

    Introduction

    I. Cleavage Divisions. Periods of Synchronous and Asynchronous Division

    II. Interaction between the Nucleus and the Cytoplasm during the Period of Cleavage

    III. Morphogenetic Action of Nuclei during the Period of Asynchronous Cleavage Division

    A. Development of Cell Competence and Inducing Capacities

    B. Onset of Gastrulation

    C. Morphogenetic Activity of Nuclei and the Number of Cell Divisions

    IV. The Ratio of the Duration of Different Developmental Periods

    A. Duration of Cleavage

    B. Relationship of Cleavage Processes and Gastrulation in Haploid and Polyploid Embryos

    C. Relative Duration of the Periods of Gastrulation and Neurulation

    D. Deviations from Typical Ratios of the Durations of Various Developmental Periods

    E. Ratio of the Durations of Cell Division, Gastrulation and Neurulation in Various Representatives of Amphibians and Sturgeon Fishes

    V. Morphogenetic Role of the Differences in the Ratio between the Durations of Cleavage, Gastrulation and Neurulation

    A. Latent Differentiation in the Embryos of one Species developing at Different Temperatures

    B. Effect of Li Ions

    C. Effect of Temporary Isolation of the Embryonic Material in Physiological Solution

    D. Importance of the Duration of the Interkinetic State and Number of Cell Divisions for the Process of Latent Differentiation of the Entoderm

    E. Latent Differentiation of Rudiments in Embryos of Different Systematic Groups

    VI. The Ratio of the Rate of Processes of Latent Differentiation in the Derivatives of Different Germ Layers in Amphibian Embryos

    VII. Summary

    References

    The Morphogenetic Role of the Cortex of the Amphibian Egg

    I. Introduction

    II. Cortex and Bilateral Symmetry

    III. Grey Crescent and Cortical Field

    IV. Born's Crescent, or an Artificial 'Grey Crescent

    V. Grafting of Cortex Material

    VI. Separation of Blastomeres by Ligature

    VII. Cortical Field and Permeability

    VIII. Structural Organization of the Cortex

    IX. The'Coat'ofHoltfreter

    X. Summary and Conclusions

    References

    Author Index

    Subject Index


Product details

  • No. of pages: 420
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1964
  • Published: January 1, 1964
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483224534

About the Editors

M. Abercrombie

Jean Brachet

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