Advances in Morphogenesis - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781483199504, 9781483224534

Advances in Morphogenesis

1st Edition

Volume 3

Editors: M. Abercrombie Jean Brachet
eBook ISBN: 9781483224534
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1964
Page Count: 420
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Description

Advances in Morphogenesis, Volume 3 covers the significant advances in various aspects of morphogenesis. This volume is divided into nine chapters that specifically consider the histochemical, morphological, and biochemical aspects of cell growth and development in various animal groups. The opening chapter deals with the different mechanisms of determination in the development of the gastropods. The next chapters present the model system for biochemical of morphological differentiation, including non-filamentous aquatic fungi and sea urchin. These topics are followed by discussions of the results obtained from chick embryo erythrocyte during the entire prenatal period, with emphasis on the problems of autodifferentiation of chick embryo blood corpuscles. A chapter examines the role of DNA, RNA, and sulfhydryl groups in morphogenesis in amphibians and regeneration in the unicellular alga, Acetabularia mediterranea. The concluding chapters describe the relationship between cleavage, relative duration of developmental periods, and cell differentiation in stages of embryonic development. These chapters also look into the positive evidence concerning the morphogenetic role of the egg cortex of the amphibians. This book is directed primarily to developmental biologists.

Table of Contents


Contributors to Volume 3

Mechanisms of Determination in the Development of Gastropods

I. Introduction

II. Ooplasmic Segregation

III. The Importance of Ooplasmic Segregation

IV. The Causality of Ooplasmic Segregation

V. Nature, Composition and Properties of the Cortex

VI. The Cortical Field

VII. The Nature of the Cortical Morphogenese Field

VIII. The Origin of the Cortical Morphogenese Field

IX. The Causality of Cellular Differentiation

X. Conclusions

References

Non-filamentous Aquatic Fungi: Model Systems for Biochemical Studies of Morphological Differentiation

I. Introduction

II. Some Aquatic Fungi Useful for Morphogenese Studies

A. Rhizidiomyces Sp

B. Rhizophlyctis Posea

C. Karlingia (Karlingiomyces) Sp

D. Blastocladia Pringsheimii

E. Blastocladiella Britannica

III. Blastocladiella Emersonii — A Model System for Experimental Studies of Differentiation

A. The Swimming Spore Stage

B. The Spore Germination Stage

C. Synchronized Single-Generation Cultures

D. Environmental Control of Exponential Growth

E. The Transition Between Exponential Growth and Differentiation

F. Developments Beyond the Point of No Return

G. Differentiation and Discharge of Zoospores

IV. Summary

References

Biochemical Studies on the Early Development of the Sea Urchin

I. Introduction

II. Remarks about Methods

III. Protein Synthesis During Early Development of the Sea Urchin

A. General Metabolic Background

B. Protein Synthesis During the Early Post-Fertilization Stages

C. Protein Synthesis During the Initial Visible Differentiation Phase

IV. The Nucleic Acids

A. Topographical Distribution

B. Biochemical Studies on Synthesis

V. Some Notes on the Subcellular Components

A. The Nucleus

B. The Mitochondria

C. The Microsomes

D. The Yolk Platelets

E. The Pigment Granules

VI. Conclusions

References

Biochemical Aspects of Animalization and Vegetalization in the Sea Urchin Embryo

I. Introduction

II. Normal Development

III. Experimental Study of Morphogenesis

A. Definitions

B. Experimental Methods

C. Heuristic and Practical Value of Operative and Chemical Methods

IV. The Gradients

V. Respiration and Carbohydrate Catabolism

A. Normal Development

B. Vegetalization

C. Animalization

VI. Metabolism of Amino-acids and Proteins

VII. Metabolism of Nucleotides and Ribonucleic Acid

VIII. Enzymes, Mitochondria and Embryonic Development

IX. Biochemical Background of the Gradients of Reduction

X. Structural Aspects of Embryonic Determination and Differentiation

XI. Conclusion

References

The Blood of Chick Embryos: Quantitative Embryology at a Cellular Level

I. Introduction

II. Qualitative and Quantitative Data on Chick Embryo Blood Corpuscles throughout the Incubation Period

A. Erythrocytes

B. Thrombocytes

C. Leucocytes

D. Other Formed Elements in the Chick Embryo Blood

E. Total Blood Volume and Related Values throughout the Incubation Period

F. Mitoses in Circulating Blood Cells and their Role in Primitive Erythrocyte Proliferation

G. Life Span of Chick Embryo Erythrocytes

H. Balance Sheet of Erythrocyte Production and Destruction throughout the Incubation Period

III. Autodifïerentiation of Embryonic Blood-forming Tissues

A. Autodifïerentiation in vitro

B. Self-differentiation in the Yolk Sac Wall without Circulation (Anidian)

References

The Role of Nucleic Acids and Sulphydryl Groups in Morphogenesis (Amphibian Egg Development, Regeneration in Acetabularia)

I. Introduction

II. DNA in Amphibian Eggs and Acetabularia

A. Amphibian Egg Development

B. Acetabularia

III. RNA Distribution and Synthesis in Amphibian Eggs and Acetabularia

A. Amphibian Egg Development

B. Acetabularia

IV. Sulphydryl Groups and Morphogenesis

A. Introductory Remarks

B. The Effects of ß-Mer cap toe thanol on Morphogenesis

C. The Effects of α-Lipoic Acid on Morphogenesis (Amphibian Eggs and Acetabularia)

D. Biochemical Effects of ß-Mercaptoethanol on Developing Organisms

V. Discussion

References

The Acrasina (continued from Vol. 2, pp. 109-182)

V. TheGrex

B. The Whole

C. Water as a Developmental Control

Summary

References

Cell Divisions, Duration of Interkinetic States and Differentiation in Early Stages of Embryonic Development

Introduction

I. Cleavage Divisions. Periods of Synchronous and Asynchronous Division

II. Interaction between the Nucleus and the Cytoplasm during the Period of Cleavage

III. Morphogenetic Action of Nuclei during the Period of Asynchronous Cleavage Division

A. Development of Cell Competence and Inducing Capacities

B. Onset of Gastrulation

C. Morphogenetic Activity of Nuclei and the Number of Cell Divisions

IV. The Ratio of the Duration of Different Developmental Periods

A. Duration of Cleavage

B. Relationship of Cleavage Processes and Gastrulation in Haploid and Polyploid Embryos

C. Relative Duration of the Periods of Gastrulation and Neurulation

D. Deviations from Typical Ratios of the Durations of Various Developmental Periods

E. Ratio of the Durations of Cell Division, Gastrulation and Neurulation in Various Representatives of Amphibians and Sturgeon Fishes

V. Morphogenetic Role of the Differences in the Ratio between the Durations of Cleavage, Gastrulation and Neurulation

A. Latent Differentiation in the Embryos of one Species developing at Different Temperatures

B. Effect of Li Ions

C. Effect of Temporary Isolation of the Embryonic Material in Physiological Solution

D. Importance of the Duration of the Interkinetic State and Number of Cell Divisions for the Process of Latent Differentiation of the Entoderm

E. Latent Differentiation of Rudiments in Embryos of Different Systematic Groups

VI. The Ratio of the Rate of Processes of Latent Differentiation in the Derivatives of Different Germ Layers in Amphibian Embryos

VII. Summary

References

The Morphogenetic Role of the Cortex of the Amphibian Egg

I. Introduction

II. Cortex and Bilateral Symmetry

III. Grey Crescent and Cortical Field

IV. Born's Crescent, or an Artificial 'Grey Crescent

V. Grafting of Cortex Material

VI. Separation of Blastomeres by Ligature

VII. Cortical Field and Permeability

VIII. Structural Organization of the Cortex

IX. The'Coat'ofHoltfreter

X. Summary and Conclusions

References

Author Index

Subject Index


Details

No. of pages:
420
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1964
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9781483224534

About the Editor

M. Abercrombie

Jean Brachet