Advances in Molecular Toxicology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444626455, 9780444626554

Advances in Molecular Toxicology, Volume 7

1st Edition

Serial Editors: James C. Fishbein Jacqueline Heilman
Hardcover ISBN: 9780444626455
eBook ISBN: 9780444626554
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 7th August 2013
Page Count: 254
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Table of Contents

Contributors

Preface

Chapter One. AHR- and ER-Mediated Toxicology and Chemoprevention

1 Introduction

2 AHR Ligands

3 Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor

4 Estrogen Receptor α and β

5 Reciprocal AHR–ER Crosstalk

6 ERα-Dependent Regulation of AHR Action

7 Implications for Chemoprevention

8 Summary

References

Chapter Two. Free Radical Metabolites in Arylamine Toxicity

1 Introduction

2 Arylamine Toxicity

3 Arylamines to Nitroaromatics—Six Degrees of Redox Separation

4 Sources and Systems that Generate Free Radical Metabolites from Arylamine Xenobiotics

5 Reactions of Arylamine Radicals with Cellular Antioxidants

6 Reactions Between Arylamine Radicals and DNA

7 Arylamine Drugs and Blood Dyscrasias

8 Diverting Toxic Arylamine Free Radical Generation to Detoxification: Importance of Free Radical Targets

9 Mixtures Toxicology—Application to Arylamine Free Radicals

10 Protein Radicals and Toxicity—Future Prospects

11 Closing Remarks

References

Chapter Three. Genotoxicity of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Metabolites: Radical Cations and Ketones

1 Introduction

2 Exposure to PAHs

3 Exposure Risks of PAH

4 DNA Damage by PAH

5 PAH Metabolism to DNA-Reactive Metabolites

6 Diol-Epoxide Pathway

7 The Radical Cation Pathway

8 Depurinating PAH Adducts and AP Sites

9 Mutagenesis Studies to Address PAH Radical Cations

10 Evidence for AP Site Formation Due to Radical Cations

11 Mutagenicity Studies with B[a]P Radical Cation Products

12 The Quinone Pathway

13 Exposure to OPAHs

14 Biological Relevance of OPAH

15 Conclusion

References

Chapter Four. Nitrogen Oxides Toxicology of the Aerodigestive Tract

1 Introduction

2 Chemistry of Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Oxide Species and the Scavengers

3 Production of Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Oxide Species by Peroxidases

4 Production of Reactive Nitrogen Oxides Under the Conditions Simulating Dental Plaque

5 Production of Reactive Nitrogen Oxides in Acidified Plaque

6 Biochemical Symptoms of Periodontal Diseases

7 Functions of Salivary Nitrite and SCN− in the Stomach

8 Concluding Remarks

References

Chapter Five. Noncholinesterase Protein Targets of Organophosphorus Pesticides

Abbreviations

1 Introduction

2 OP Nerve Agents and OP Pesticides

3 AChE: the Established Target of OP Toxicity

4 Neuropathy Target Esterase: an Established Target of OP Toxicity

5 OP Toxicity Targets in Addition to AChE

6 Metabolism of OP

7 In Vitro Studies Show OP Binding to Serine Hydrolases and to Receptors

8 Preliminary Identification of Serine Hydrolases as OP Targets in Mouse Brain

9 OP Binding to Proteins That Have No Active Site Serine

10 BChE, the Biomarker of Human Exposure to OP

11 Albumin, a Biomarker of OP Exposure in Humans

12 Mass Spectrometry Detection of OP Adducts on Albumin

13 Acylpeptide Hydrolase, a Potential Biomarker of OP Exposure

14 Future Directions

References

Chapter Six. Organophosphate Exposure: Detection and Remediation

1 Introduction

2 Mechanism of OP Toxicity to Humans

3 Detection of OP Exposure

4 Remediation of NA OP Poisoning

5 Future Directions and Challenges in OP Detection and Remediation

6 Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Index


Description

Contributors

Preface

Chapter One. AHR- and ER-Mediated Toxicology and Chemoprevention

1 Introduction

2 AHR Ligands

3 Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor

4 Estrogen Receptor α and β

5 Reciprocal AHR–ER Crosstalk

6 ERα-Dependent Regulation of AHR Action

7 Implications for Chemoprevention

8 Summary

References

Chapter Two. Free Radical Metabolites in Arylamine Toxicity

1 Introduction

2 Arylamine Toxicity

3 Arylamines to Nitroaromatics—Six Degrees of Redox Separation

4 Sources and Systems that Generate Free Radical Metabolites from Arylamine Xenobiotics

5 Reactions of Arylamine Radicals with Cellular Antioxidants

6 Reactions Between Arylamine Radicals and DNA

7 Arylamine Drugs and Blood Dyscrasias

8 Diverting Toxic Arylamine Free Radical Generation to Detoxification: Importance of Free Radical Targets

9 Mixtures Toxicology—Application to Arylamine Free Radicals

10 Protein Radicals and Toxicity—Future Prospects

11 Closing Remarks

References

Chapter Three. Genotoxicity of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Metabolites: Radical Cations and Ketones

1 Introduction

2 Exposure to PAHs

3 Exposure Risks of PAH

4 DNA Damage by PAH

5 PAH Metabolism to DNA-Reactive Metabolites

6 Diol-Epoxide Pathway

7 The Radical Cation Pathway

8 Depurinating PAH Adducts and AP Sites

9 Mutagenesis Studies to Address PAH Radical Cations

10 Evidence for AP Site Formation Due to Radical Cations

11 Mutagenicity Studies with B[a]P Radical Cation Products

12 The Quinone Pathway

13 Exposure to OPAHs

14 Biological Relevance of OPAH

15 Conclusion

References

Chapter Four. Nitrogen Oxides Toxicology of the Aerodigestive Tract

1 Introduction

2 Chemistry of Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Oxide Species and the Scavengers

3 Production of Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Oxide Species by Peroxidases

4 Production of Reactive Nitrogen Oxides Under the Conditions Simulating Dental Plaque

5 Production of Reactive Nitrogen Oxides in Acidified Plaque

6 Biochemical Symptoms of Periodontal Diseases

7 Functions of Salivary Nitrite and SCN− in the Stomach

8 Concluding Remarks

References

Chapter Five. Noncholinesterase Protein Targets of Organophosphorus Pesticides

Abbreviations

1 Introduction

2 OP Nerve Agents and OP Pesticides

3 AChE: the Established Target of OP Toxicity

4 Neuropathy Target Esterase: an Established Target of OP Toxicity

5 OP Toxicity Targets in Addition to AChE

6 Metabolism of OP

7 In Vitro Studies Show OP Binding to Serine Hydrolases and to Receptors

8 Preliminary Identification of Serine Hydrolases as OP Targets in Mouse Brain

9 OP Binding to Proteins That Have No Active Site Serine

10 BChE, the Biomarker of Human Exposure to OP

11 Albumin, a Biomarker of OP Exposure in Humans

12 Mass Spectrometry Detection of OP Adducts on Albumin

13 Acylpeptide Hydrolase, a Potential Biomarker of OP Exposure

14 Future Directions

References

Chapter Six. Organophosphate Exposure: Detection and Remediation

1 Introduction

2 Mechanism of OP Toxicity to Humans

3 Detection of OP Exposure

4 Remediation of NA OP Poisoning

5 Future Directions and Challenges in OP Detection and Remediation

6 Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Index

Key Features

  • Cutting-edge reviews by leading workers in the discipline
  • In-depth dissection of molecular aspects of interest to a broad range of scientists, physicians and any student in the allied disciplines
  • Leading edge applications of technological innovations in chemistry, biochemistry and molecular medicine

Readership

For academics in the field of chemistry, biochemistry, toxicology, pharmacology medicine; for Government agencies and those in industry, pharmaceutical and chemical manufacturers


Details

No. of pages:
254
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier 2013
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier
eBook ISBN:
9780444626554
Hardcover ISBN:
9780444626455

About the Serial Editors

James C. Fishbein Serial Editor

Dr. James Fishbein works at the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD, USA

Jacqueline Heilman Serial Editor

Dr. Jacqueline Heilman works at Exponent, Inc., Washington, DC.

Affiliations and Expertise

Exponent, Inc., Washington, DC, USA