Advances in Animal Experimentation and Modeling

Advances in Animal Experimentation and Modeling

Understanding Life Phenomena

1st Edition - December 8, 2021

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  • Editor: Ranbir Chander Sobti
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780323905831
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323910446

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Description

Exploration in Laboratory Animal Sciences Understanding Life Phenomena updates our knowledge about the newer technologies such as molecular biology, genomics including sequencing, proteomics, transcriptomics, cell culture, stem cell culture, transgenesis and their translation to understand systematics and phylogeny of laboratory animals at molecular level. In seven sections Exploration in Laboratory Animal Sciences Understanding Life Phenomena resolves issues of conservation, applications in environment monitoring, production of drugs and others. Comparative research has enabled use of domestic animal models that translate the advances in basic biosciences to the schemes for human welfare including medicine. Molecular geneticists are unravelling the complexities of mammalian genes and the field of biotechnology is maturing at a fast pace. Additionally, research focused on immunology and animal behavior offer new insight into ways of enhancing animal welfare. The rise in consumption of animal proteins in addition to the challenges of sustaining our natural resources has given animal scientists a vast array of opportunities to engage in integrative systems-based research for meeting the challenges that behold us. Exploration in Laboratory Animal Sciences Understanding Life Phenomena also discusses the manipulation of animals as factories for the production of safe foods, drugs, and sensors and others to meet the contemporary challenges faced by mankind in the new world order created by pandemic of Covid 19. It also includes several chapters on the causation and management of certain diseases and impact of microbes on life.

Key Features

  • Provides insight to newer and futuristic technologies to understand disease process and drug design by animal models
  • Addresses a wide variety of species and covers a wide variety of topics (such as animal species, the laboratory setting, regulatory guidelines, and ethical considerations) to fully prepare for work with all types of animals
  • Gives a perspective on laboratory animal use that allows to explain the benefits of animal use as required by veterinary technology program accreditation procedure
  • Includes examples of animal bio-technological techniques (including stem cell and tissue engineering) for their applications to humanity
  • Offers new insight into ways of enhancing animal welfare by the inclusion of research results focused on immunology and laboratory animal behavior

Readership

Academies, Institutes of research, Foundations involved in education and training in the field of laboratory animal sciences (LAS), National and International Associations/Scientific Societies involved in the field of LAS. Post-graduate/Post-Doc/Early Career Researchers/industry. Researchers, Teachers in animal, agricultural and pharmaceutical sciences; Policy makers in Animal/agricultural/veterinary/biomedical research

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • Dedication
  • List of contributors
  • Preface
  • Part A: Modern technological advancements in the field of animal experimentation
  • Chapter 1. Emerging techniques in biological sciences
  • Abstract
  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Artificial Intelligence
  • 1.3 Imaging cells to molecules in 3D
  • 1.4 Microarray
  • 1.5 Genetic engineering with precision
  • 1.6 Omics technologies
  • 1.7 Informatics and simulations
  • 1.8 Automation and miniaturization of experiments
  • 1.9 BioMEMS (Biomedical micro electro-mechanical systems in biology)
  • References
  • Chapter 2. Molecular basis of animal systematics including barcoding
  • Abstract
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Morphological systematics and its shortcomings
  • 2.3 Molecular markers
  • 2.4 DNA barcoding: an effective technique in molecular systematics
  • 2.5 Concluding remarks
  • References
  • Chapter 3. Mitochondrial DNA: a tool for elucidating molecular phylogenetics and population
  • Abstract
  • 3.1 Size of mtDNA in different livestock species
  • 3.2 Mitochondrial DNA vis a vis genomic DNA
  • 3.3 Mitochondrial DNA as genetic marker
  • 3.4 Mitochondrial DNA as a molecular clock
  • 3.5 Domestication of livestock species and mitochondrial DNA
  • 3.6 Challenges and future prospects
  • References
  • Chapter 4. Somatic cell nuclear transfer in cellular medicine and biopharming
  • Abstract
  • Highlights
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 SCNT as potent genome reprogramming tool
  • 4.3 Cloned transgenic animals
  • 4.4 Development of therapeutic cells
  • 4.5 Biopharming using cloned transgenic animals
  • 4.6 Outlook and challenges
  • References
  • Chapter 5. Animal cloning: perspectives for futuristic medicine
  • Abstract
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer
  • 5.3 Molecular/gene cloning
  • 5.4 Human reproductive cloning
  • 5.5 Risk of cloning
  • 5.6 Ethical issues of human cloning
  • 5.7 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 6. CRISPR/Cas9 system and prospects in animal modeling of neurodegenerative diseases
  • Abstract
  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.2 Background and basic technique
  • 6.3 Technique basics
  • 6.4 Applications of CRISPR/Cas9 technology
  • 6.5 CRISPR-Cas9 in neurodegenerative diseases
  • 6.6 Challenges, limitations and adaptations in CRISPR/Cas9 technique
  • 6.7 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 7. Semen quality biomarkers for improvement of production in livestock
  • Abstract
  • 7.1 Introduction
  • 7.2 Canonical methods of semen quality evaluation
  • 7.3 Biochemical evaluation
  • 7.4 Microscopic examination
  • 7.5 Computer-assisted semen analysis
  • 7.6 Flow cytometry
  • 7.7 Sperm RNA(s) as semen quality biomarker
  • 7.8 Sperm DNA methylation as semen quality biomarker
  • 7.9 Sperm SNPs as semen quality biomarkers
  • 7.10 Sperm proteins as semen quality biomarker
  • References
  • Part B: Animal modeling and its applications
  • Chapter 8. Animal models and their substitutes in biomedical research
  • Abstract
  • 8.1 Introduction
  • 8.2 Alternatives to animal models in scientific research
  • 8.3 Concluding remarks
  • References
  • Further reading
  • Chapter 9. Experimental models for investigating the pathogenesis of heart failure
  • Abstract
  • 9.1 Introduction
  • 9.2 Myocardial ischemia induced heart failure
  • 9.3 Hemodynamic overload-induced heart failure
  • 9.4 Pressure overload-induced models
  • 9.5 Tachycardia-induced heart failure model
  • 9.6 Genetic cardiomyopathy model of heart failure
  • 9.7 Concluding remarks
  • Acknowledgments
  • Conflict of interest
  • References
  • Chapter 10. Animal models of inflammatory musculoskeletal diseases for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine: updates and translational application
  • Abstract
  • 10.1 Introduction
  • 10.2 Musculoskeletal tissue engineering
  • 10.3 Animal models in biomedical research
  • 10.4 Challenges and perspective
  • Acknowledgments
  • Conflict of interests
  • References
  • Chapter 11. Selection of experimental models mimicking human pathophysiology for diabetic microvascular complications
  • Abstract
  • 11.1 Introduction
  • 11.2 Diabetic nephropathy
  • 11.3 Diabetic neuropathy
  • 11.4 Diabetic retinopathy
  • 11.5 Discussion
  • 11.6 Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 12. Exploration on different animal models used in drug-induced adverse reactions research; current scenario and further prospectives
  • Abstract
  • 12.1 Introduction
  • 12.2 Animal models used in research
  • 12.3 Studies of adverse drug reactions associated with different drugs on different animal models
  • 12.4 Common adverse reactions of drugs
  • 12.5 Conclusions and recommendations
  • References
  • Chapter 13. Animal models for hepatoxicity
  • Abstract
  • 13.1 Introduction
  • 13.2 Classification of animal models for hepatotoxicity
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • Chapter 14. Drosophila embryo as experimental model: lessons learnt from genes in axis formation
  • Abstract
  • 14.1 Introduction
  • 14.2 Anterior-posterior axis formation in Drosophila
  • 14.3 Dorsal-ventral axis formation in Drosophila melanogaster
  • 14.4 Concluding remarks
  • References
  • Part C: Animal diversity and conservation
  • Chapter 15. Exploration of biological science in extreme environment: an Indian experience at the Arctic
  • Abstract
  • 15.1 Long-term objectives
  • 15.2 Short-term objectives
  • References
  • Chapter 16. Parlance of insect systematics: from classical to molecular—the journey has been long
  • Abstract
  • 16.1 Introduction
  • 16.2 Classical taxonomy-morphological attributes
  • 16.3 New trends
  • 16.4 Larval taxonomy/embryology
  • 16.5 Eco-taxonomy
  • 16.6 Ethological taxonomy
  • 16.7 Cytotaxonomy
  • 16.8 Molecular taxonomy
  • 16.9 Identification of members of a target group of species
  • 16.10 Identification of disease causing agents
  • 16.11 Phylogeny and classification
  • 16.12 Conclusion and discussion
  • 16.13 Status of insect taxonomy in India
  • 16.14 Need of the hour
  • 16.15 Networking between different research institutions
  • References
  • Chapter 17. Parasites in a changing world
  • Abstract
  • 17.1 Introduction
  • 17.2 Parasites and wildlife
  • 17.3 Parasites in farming systems
  • 17.4 Zoonotic parasitic diseases
  • 17.5 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 18. Ambient ecological conditions of the Gangetic dolphin- Platanista gangetica gangetica of river Ganga, between Varanasi to Farakka
  • Abstract
  • 18.1 Introduction
  • 18.2 Field survey and habitat related protocols
  • 18.3 Result and discussion
  • 18.4 Dolphin status and distribution
  • 18.5 Conclusion and recommendations
  • References
  • Chapter 19. Entomopathogenic nematode in national development through enhancing the socio-economic condition of Indian farmers
  • Abstract
  • 19.1 Introduction
  • 19.2 Historical approach of EPN
  • 19.3 Major techniques/important observations
  • 19.4 Nematode species and target insect pests
  • 19.5 Entomopathogenic nematodes based formulations
  • 19.6 Formulation development at Chaudhary Charan Singh University, Meerut
  • 19.7 Applications of entomopathogenic nematodes-based formulation
  • 19.8 Summary
  • Acknowledgment
  • Declaration
  • References
  • Further reading
  • Chapter 20. Molecular studies of pest termites in India
  • Abstract
  • 20.1 Introduction
  • 20.2 Materials and methods
  • 20.3 Results
  • 20.4 Discussion
  • 20.5 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 21. Roadmap for wildlife research and conservation in India
  • Abstract
  • 21.1 Introduction
  • 21.2 Review
  • 21.3 Discussion
  • References
  • Chapter 22. Flying fox: threats and global conservation status
  • Abstract
  • 22.1 Introduction
  • 22.2 Why do flying foxes need to be conserved?
  • 22.3 Threat factors
  • 22.4 Hunting
  • 22.5 Cultural/symbolic threats
  • 22.6 Medicinal use
  • 22.7 Roost distraction/deforestation
  • 22.8 Ambient temperature
  • 22.9 Natural calamities
  • 22.10 Pest
  • 22.11 Predators
  • 22.12 Global status
  • 22.13 Conservation measures
  • 22.14 Captive breeding
  • 22.15 Roost monitoring
  • 22.16 Awareness campaign
  • 22.17 Conclusion
  • Conflict of interest
  • References
  • Chapter 23. Importance of need-based and applied research for conservation of animal fauna towards national development—an insight
  • Abstract
  • 23.1 Introduction
  • 23.2 Habitat preservation
  • 23.3 Climate change impact
  • 23.4 Importance of animal research
  • 23.5 Research priorities
  • Chapter 24. Strategies for characterizing and protecting animal resources for future generations
  • Abstract
  • 24.1 Introduction
  • References
  • Part D: Advances in livestock research
  • Chapter 25. Buffaloes for nutritional secure and economically empowered rural India
  • Abstract
  • 25.1 Introduction
  • 25.2 Buffalo is India’s primary dairy livestock
  • 25.3 Issues with buffalo production systems
  • 25.4 Suggested remedies for sustainable buffalo production
  • 25.5 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 26. Livestock sector: an integral component for country’s food and social security
  • Abstract
  • 26.1 Introduction
  • 26.2 Contributions of various livestock species—the Indian perspective
  • 26.3 Cattle and buffalo
  • 26.4 Sheep and goat
  • 26.5 Pigs
  • 26.6 Poultry
  • 26.7 Other livestock species
  • 26.8 Bottlenecks in livestock production
  • 26.9 Opportunities and challenges
  • References
  • Chapter 27. Proteomics-based advancements in research toward sustainable production from dairy livestock
  • Abstract
  • 27.1 Challenges in enhancing future milk production
  • 27.2 Need for an integrated approach to enhance production
  • 27.3 Importance of information-based policy
  • 27.4 Proteomics in feed, fodder, and ruminant digestion
  • 27.5 Proteomics for low-yielding indigenous and exotic cows
  • 27.6 Proteomics for diseases in dairy animals
  • 27.7 Proteomics for diagnostics and therapeutics in cows
  • 27.8 Proteomics to tap the full potential of milk
  • 27.9 Milk safety, adulterants and milk-borne pathogens
  • 27.10 Conclusion
  • References
  • Further reading
  • Chapter 28. Artificial insemination: scope and challenges for indian dairy sector
  • Abstract
  • 28.1 Artificial insemination
  • 28.2 Artificial insemination and frozen semen production network in India
  • 28.3 Challenges in implementation of artificial insemination in India
  • 28.4 Supply of frozen semen and liquid nitrogen to artificial insemination workers
  • 28.5 Effective artificial insemination delivery at farmers’ doorstep
  • 28.6 Awareness among the farmers
  • 28.7 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 29. Livestock health: current status of helminth infections and their control for sustainable development
  • Abstract
  • 29.1 Current livestock status
  • 29.2 Impact of helminth diseases on livestock industry
  • 29.3 Pathogenicity caused by helminth parasites
  • 29.4 Diagnosis of helminth infections
  • 29.5 Strategies to control parasitic infections in animals
  • 29.6 Socioeconomic impact of control of helminth infections: prosperity and education for children
  • 29.7 Concluding remarks
  • 29.8 Outstanding questions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 30. Harnessing potential of A2 milk in India: an overview
  • Abstract
  • 30.1 Introduction
  • 30.2 Gene polymorphism and bioactive peptides
  • 30.3 Protein variants of beta casein gene
  • 30.4 Bioactive peptides from A1/A2 types of milk
  • 30.5 Mode of action of milk derived peptides
  • 30.6 A1 milk consumption and human health
  • 30.7 Demographic distribution pattern of A1/A2 allele of beta casein gene
  • References
  • Chapter 31. Understanding heat stress response in dairy animals: an overview
  • Abstract
  • 31.1 Introduction
  • 31.2 Physiological responses to heat stress
  • 31.3 Hematological responses to heat stress
  • 31.4 Biochemical responses to heat stress
  • 31.5 Cellular and molecular responses to heat stress
  • 31.6 Genomics: a way forward
  • 31.7 Opportunities and challenges
  • References
  • Chapter 32. Livestock sector between pushing and pulling factors-evolving scenario for national livestock development
  • Abstract
  • 32.1 Introduction
  • 32.2 Livestock population dynamics
  • 32.3 Adoption of crossbred/improved animals
  • 32.4 Production of livestock & its products
  • 32.5 Growth of veterinary institutions
  • 32.6 Deterioration of common property resource and integration with crop culture
  • 32.7 Planning and fiscal support
  • 32.8 Prospects for livestock farming
  • 32.9 Limiting factors
  • 32.10 Evolving options for sustenance of livestock sector
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Part E: Futuristic Approaches in the Field of Environment
  • Chapter 33. Parasite diversity strategies under influence of pollutants
  • Abstract
  • 33.1 Introduction
  • 33.2 Diversity of parasites on fish in the challenged environment
  • 33.3 Interactions of pollutants and parasites on hosts
  • 33.4 Use of sensitivity of parasites to the ambient chemical environment
  • 33.5 Parasite response towards pollution
  • 33.6 Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 34. Parasites : futuristic indicators of an altered aquatic environment
  • Abstract
  • 34.1 Introduction
  • 34.2 Bioindicators from Indian perspective
  • 34.3 Fish as biomarkers in water bodies in India
  • 34.4 Helminth bioindicators from international perspective
  • 34.5 Conclusions and perspectives of parasites as accumulation indicators
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 35. Effect of climate change on mosquito population and changing pattern of some diseases transmitted by them
  • Abstract
  • 35.1 Introduction
  • 35.2 Discussion and conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 36. New dimensions in self employment for sustainability in a changing environment
  • Abstract
  • 36.1 Introduction
  • 36.2 Major technologies
  • 36.3 Industrial linkage
  • 36.4 Apiculture and beekeeping organizations in India
  • 36.5 Summary
  • References
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 502
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2021
  • Published: December 8, 2021
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780323905831
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323910446

About the Editor

Ranbir Chander Sobti

Ranbir Chander Sobti M.Sc. (Hons. School), Ph.D., D.Sc., F.T.W.A.S., F.N.A., F.N.A.Sc., F.Z.S., F.N.A.A.S., F.A.M.S., F.P.A.S., F.A.M.I., F.S.C.G. , former Vice-Chancellor Panjab University, Chandigarh & Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University (Central University), Lucknow is a scientist, an able administrator and dynamic institution builder. Starting his career as a Cytogeneticist, he moved on to explore the developments in his area of interest and evaluated the role of gene polymorphism & their expression in the genesis of various cancer, COPD, AIDS and metabolic syndrome. Currently he is involved in the development of whole organ by tissue/organ culture through custom designed decellularization protocol. He has demonstrated that the regulation of stem cell character under in vitro conditions is a function of morphological assortment of Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLNC)-an observation that has marked significance in the field of Stem Cell research. Dr. Sobti, an active researcher, is also steadfastly committed to the popularization of science in the community through popular lectures and community engagement programs. He is a Fellow of the Third World Academy of Science, National Academy of Sciences, Indian National Science Academy, National Academics of Medical Sciences and Agricultural Sciences and of the Canadian Academy of Cardiovascular Diseases and few others. Dr. Sobti is the recipient of many prestigious awards like, the INSA Young Scientist Medal, UGC Career Award, Punjab Rattan Award, JC Bose Oration and Sriram Oration Awards and of his Life Time Achievement Awards of the Punjab Academy of Sciences, Zoology Society of India, and the Environment Academy of India, besides many other medals and awards of national and International levels. He has published more than 300 papers in the national and international journal of repute. He has also published 40 plus books. Keeping is view his contributions to education, he was bestowed with one of the highest civilian awards PADMASHRI by the Government of India in 2009.

Affiliations and Expertise

Former Vice-Chancellor Panjab University, Chandigarh and Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University (Central University), Chandigarh, India

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