Advanced Software Applications in Japan - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780815513605, 9781437744903

Advanced Software Applications in Japan

1st Edition

Hardcover ISBN: 9780815513605
eBook ISBN: 9781437744903
Imprint: William Andrew
Published Date: 1st January 1995
Page Count: 676
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Advanced Software Applications in Japan

Table of Contents

Part I Knowledge-Based Systems in Japan

Executive Summary

1. Introduction

Expert Systems and Artificial Intelligence

The Applications of Expert Systems

Benefits to End Users

The Expert Systems Business

Advanced Research in Knowledge-Based Systems: Inventing the Next Generation

Design of the JTEC Study Group on Knowledge-Based Systems and the Selection of Japanese Sites

2. Applications of Knowledge-Based Systems in Japan

Trends in AI Applications in Japan

Case Studies of High-Impact Systems

Types of Applications

Company-Specific Applications

Observations and Conclusions

3. Tools and Infrastructure for Knowledge-Based Systems


Expert Systems Building Tools: Definitions

Profile of a Tool: ES/KERNEL2

Profile of a Tool Vendor: Hitachi

Infrastructure: Industrial Research and Technology Transfer

Observations and Conclusions

4. Advanced Knowledge-Based Systems Research

University Research

Industrial Research

5. National AI Research Projects


Electronic Dictionary Research (EDR) Project


Fuzzy Logic Research and Life

Real World Computing (RWC) Project

6. Integration of ES with Conventional Data Processing Systems


Integration with Physical Systems

Integration of Problem-Solving Techniques

Future Visions


7. Business Perspective

History and Trends

Business Advantages of KBS Technology

Business Impact on the Japanese Computer Manufacturers (JCMs)

Business Impact on Non-JCM Companies

Comparison with Conventional Data Processing

Problems with Current Generation KBS Technology

Are Knowledge-Based Systems a Business?


8. Conclusions

Business Sector Applications of Expert Systems in Japan

Knowledge-Based Systems Research in Japan

ICOT Research Program Progress

EDR Program Progress


Appendix A: Professional Experience of Panel Members

Appendix B: Professional Experience of Other Team Members

Appendix C: Questionnaire

Appendix D: Sites Visited by JTEC Team

Appendix E: Site Reports

Appendix F: Bibliography

Appendix G: Glossary

Part II Database Use and Technology in Japan

Executive Summary

1. Introduction

1.1 Coverage

1.2 Motivation

1.3 Overview

2. Database Research Infrastructure

2.1 Role of the Japanese Government in Database Activities

2.2 Funding Sources

2.3 International Collaboration

2.4 U.S. Influence and Faddism

2.5 Conclusions

3. Technology Topics

3.1 Object Databases

3.2 Knowledge Bases

3.3 Multimedia Database Systems

3.4 Interoperable Databases

3.5 Database Hardware

3.6 Security

3.7 Database Tools

3.8 Database Management Systems (DBMSs)

3.9 Summary

4. DBMS Product Infrastructure

4.1 DBMS Technology Channels

4.2 DBMS Market Drivers

4.3 Japanese Positioning

4.4 The Japanese Response to the Global Database Market

4.5 Observations

5. Database Use Industry

5.1 Database Search Services

5.2 Databases as Export Products

5.3 Database Technology

5.4 Summary Assessment

6. Summary

6.1 Multimedia Databases

6.2 Government and Database Research and Development


Participants' Biographies

Sites Visited and Contacts

Trip Reports


Part III Machine Translation in Japan

Executive Summary

1. Introduction: Machine Translation in Japan and the U.S.

1.1 The State of the Art in Machine Translation

1.2 The Role of Machine Translation

1.3 An Historical Sketch of Machine Translation

1.4 The Japanese View of Machine Translation

1.5 A Comparative Analysis of Japanese and U.S. Machine Translation

1.6 Paradigms for Machine Translation

1.7 Structure of the Report

2. Technical Infrastructure

2.1 Overview of the Translation Process

2.2 Translation Stages of the Linguistic Processor

2.3 Analysis

2.4 Transfer

2.5 Generation

3. Languages and Application Domains

3.1 Current Range of Source and Target Languages

3.2 Addition of New Source and Target Languages

3.3 Application Domains, Domain Adaptability

4. Knowledge Sources for Machine Translation

4.1 Overview of Knowledge Sources

4.2 Use of Knowledge Sources in Specific Japanese MT Systems

4.3 Knowledge Sources and Linguistic Theory

4.4 Lexicon Samples

5. Life Cycle of Machine Translation Systems

5.1 Research Prototype

5.2 Operational Prototype

5.3 Practical System (Special-Purpose)

5.4 Commercial System (General-Purpose)

5.5 Ongoing Use

6. The Uses of Machine Translation in Japan

6.1 Introduction

6.2 User Sites Visited

6.3 MT Users: The Vendor Perspective

6.4 The Broader Outlook

7. Acceptance of MT: Quality and Productivity

7.1 Productivity and Cost

7.2 Translation Quality

7.3 Throughput

7.4 Customization

7.5 Integration

7.6 Open Systems and Software Portability

8. MT Contrasts Between the U.S. and Europe

8.1 Major MT Centers and Systems in the U.S.

8.2 Influences Among MT Groups

8.3 Current European Systems

9. Research and Development

9.1 Interlingua-Based Translation

9.2 Example-Based Translation

9.3 Transfer-Driven Translation

9.4 Grammars

9.5 Generation

9.6 Dictionaries

9.7 Discourse-Level Issues

9.8 Better Tools for Users

9.9 Extension to Other Languages

9.10 Speech-to-Speech Translation

9.11 Embedded MT Systems

9.12 Massively Parallel Hardware

9.13 The Future

10. Future Directions in Machine Translation

11. References

Appendix I: Japanese Sites in Part III Report

Appendix II: Biographies of Panel Members

Appendix III: Abbreviations Used in Part III

Part IV Advanced Computing in Japan

1. Executive Summary

The Technical Bottom Line

2. Computing in Japan

2.1 Organization

2.2 Preview of the Report

2.3 Science and Technology

2.4 Advice for Future Panels

2.5 Acknowledgements

3. Electronic Components, Chips and Packaging

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Discussion

3.3 Summary

3.4 Projections for the Future

4. Data Storage

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Disk Drive Technology

4.3 Recording in Japan

4.4 Overview

5. Computer Architecture

5.1 Overview

5.2 Response to Questions

5.3 Interactions Between Japanese and Foreign Researchers

5.4 Computing Environment in Japan

5.5 Detailed Observations

5.6 Observations, Impressions, and Scenarios

5.7 A Survey of Computer Architectures

6. Progress in Software and Software Engineering

6.1 Introduction

6.2 The Computer Business

6.3 The Life of a Software Professional

6.4 Tools

6.5 Methodology

6.6 Measured Performance

6.7 Speculations

6.8 Operating Systems

6.9 Programming Languages

6.10 General Attitudes

6.11 Recommended Further Studies

7. Multimedia and Human Interfaces

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Japanese Industrial Work

7.3 Japanese Government Projects

7.4 Conclusions


8.1 Introduction

8.2 TRON and Trade Friction

8.3 Summary

9. Advanced Scientific Computing in Japan

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Overview of Academic Supercomputer Centers

9.3 Networking in Japan

9.4 Institute for Molecular Sciences

9.5 University of Tokyo Computing Center

9.6 Protein Engineering Research Institute

9.7 Institute of Computational Fluid Dynamics

9.8 Comparisons Between U.S. and Japan

Appendix A: Personnel and Agendas

A.1 Biographical Sketches

A.2 Itinerary of JTEC Panel in Japan

A.3 Agenda of Kickoff Meeting, July 11, 1989

A.4 Agenda of Oral Report Meeting, December 8, 1989

Appendix B: Trip Report

B.1 Introduction

B.2 Monday, November 6

B.3 Tuesday, November 7

B.4 Wednesday, November 8

B.5 Thursday, November 9

B.6 Friday, November 10

B.7 A Computer Architecture Survey



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© William Andrew 1995
William Andrew
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