Additives for Polyolefins - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780323358842, 9780323371773

Additives for Polyolefins

2nd Edition

Getting the Most out of Polypropylene, Polyethylene and TPO

Authors: Michael Tolinski
eBook ISBN: 9780323371773
Hardcover ISBN: 9780323358842
Imprint: William Andrew
Published Date: 13th March 2015
Page Count: 240
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Table of Contents

  • Preface to the Second Edition
  • Section I: Overview of Polyolefins and Additives
    • 1. Introduction
      • 1.1 Importance of Polyolefins
      • 1.2 Importance of Polyolefin Additives
      • 1.3 Recent Issues in Using Additives
    • 2. Trends in Polyolefin and Additives Use
      • 2.1 Polyolefin Market Trends
      • 2.2 Overall Trends in Additives Production and Use
      • 2.3 Trends in Resin Compounding
      • 2.4 Trends in Specific Polyolefin Applications
  • Section II: Environmental Resistance
    • 3. Antioxidants and Heat Stabilization
      • 3.1 Importance of AOs and Stabilizers for Polyolefins
      • 3.2 Primary and Secondary AOs
      • 3.3 Factors Determining AO Selection
    • 4. Ultraviolet Light Protection and Stabilization
      • 4.1 UV Degradation of Polyolefins
      • 4.2 UV Blockers, Screeners, and Absorbers
      • 4.3 Quenchers and Peroxide Decomposers
      • 4.4 HALS: Free-Radical Scavengers
      • 4.5 Factors Determining Stabilizer Selection
    • 5. Flame-Retarding Additives
      • 5.1 Overview: The Need for FR Formulations
      • 5.2 Halogen-Based FRs
      • 5.3 Mineral-Based FRs
      • 5.4 Intumescent and Phosphorous-Based FRs
      • 5.5 Factors Determining the Selection of FR Additives
    • 6. Additives for Modifying Electrical Properties
      • 6.1 Antistatic and ESD Additives
      • 6.2 EMI Shielding
      • 6.3 Choosing Antistat/ESD/EMI Additives
  • Section III: Mechanical Property Enhancement
    • 7. Overview of Fillers and Fibers
      • 7.1 Importance of Fillers and Fibers for Polyolefins
      • 7.2 Common Inorganic Fillers
      • 7.3 Nanofillers
      • 7.4 Impact Modifiers and TPOs
      • 7.5 Fiber Reinforcement
    • 8. Factors Determining the Selection of Fillers and Fibers
      • 8.1 Cutting Costs and Improving Properties with Fillers
      • 8.2 Impact Modification: Balancing Stiffness with Toughness
      • 8.3 Mechanical Reinforcement: Properties Create Opportunities
      • 8.4 Processing Pitfalls and Hidden Costs
      • 8.5 Questions When Choosing Fillers and Fibers
  • Section IV: Appearance Enhancement
    • 9. Colorants
      • 9.1 Coloring Strategies
      • 9.2 Colorant Delivery and Processing
      • 9.3 Factors That Affect the Choice of Colorant
    • 10. Nucleation and Clarity
      • 10.1 Nucleating Agents: Overview
      • 10.2 Factors in Choosing Nucleating/Clarifying Agents
  • Section V: Processing Aids
    • 11. Processing Aids for Molding
      • 11.1 Melt Flow Modification and Mold Release
      • 11.2 Special Cases for Processing Aids in Molding
    • 12. Processing Aids for Extrusion
      • 12.1 Requirements of Extrusion-Based Processes
      • 12.2 Slip Agents
      • 12.3 Antiblocking Agents
      • 12.4 Additives for Reducing Melt Fracture and Die Buildup
      • 12.5 Processing Aids for Specific Extrusion Situations
  • Section VI: Other Modifications of Form and Function
    • 13. Reducing Density: Polyolefin Foams
      • 13.1 Blowing Foams: Chemical Agents Versus Physical Agents
      • 13.2 Product Sectors Requiring CFAs
      • 13.3 Factors in Blowing Better Foams
    • 14. Coupling and Compatibilizing
      • 14.1 Coupling Fillers and Fibers with the Polyolefin Matrix
      • 14.2 Compatibilizers for Integrating Regrind and Recycled Materials
    • 15. Cross-Linking
      • 15.1 Cross-Linked PE: Advantages and Applications
      • 15.2 Cross-Linking Agents
      • 15.3 Factors in Choosing Cross-Linking Agents
    • 16. Sterilization and Radiation Resistance
      • 16.1 Sterilization Effects on Polyolefin Products
      • 16.2 Additive Solutions for Sterilization-Resistant Polyolefins
    • 17. Aesthetics Enhancement and Surface Modification
      • 17.1 Antiscratch Additives
      • 17.2 Antifogging Agents
      • 17.3 Antimicrobials and Biocides
      • 17.4 Odor-Modifying Additives
    • 18. Gas Barrier Properties Enhancement
      • 18.1 Polyolefin Additives as Barriers to Water Vapor Transmission
      • 18.2 Oxygen Transmission and the Scavenging Effects of Additives
      • 18.3 Additives for Controlling Other Gases
  • Section VII: Conclusion: Incorporating Additives
    • 19. Adding Additives to Resin
      • 19.1 Handling Additives
      • 19.2 Mixing and Dispersing Additives into Resin
      • 19.3 Blending and Feeding Additives
      • 19.4 Choosing the Best Form of an Additive
    • 20. Choosing Additives for Sustainability
      • 20.1 Factors That Make Polyolefins Sustainable
      • 20.2 Characteristics of Sustainable Polyolefin Additives
      • 20.3 Examples of “Green” Uses of Additives in Polyolefin Materials
      • 20.4 Additives for Promoting Polyolefin Biodegradability: Questions and Concerns
      • 20.5 Lessons to Learn for Choosing Sustainable Additives for Polyolefins
  • References
  • Index


Additives for Polyolefins is a unique quick-reference resource for those who create or use polyethylene and polypropylene compounds—the most commercially important family of plastic materials, making up close to half of the volume all plastics produced and used. These polymers would be useless without various additives.

The book focuses on polyolefin additives that are currently important in the plastics industry, alongside new additives of increasing interest, such as nanofillers and environmentally sustainable materials. As much as possible, each chapter emphasises the performance of the additives in the polymer, and the value each relevant additive brings to polypropylene or polyethylene. Where possible, similar additives are compared by capability and relative cost.

In this new edition, product tables have been updated with the most current product and company names, new case studies have been added, the role of nanofillers is discussed in greater detail, and the book concludes with a discussion on blending and handling additives, along with an entirely new chapter on how engineers can approach the issue of sustainability when choosing an additive.

Key Features

  • Assesses capabilities and costs of a range of additives to enable engineers and scientists to make the correct selection for their property requirements
  • Provides concise, practical information about the purpose and use of specific additives, fillers, and reinforcements – demystifying the world of additives by providing clear, engineering explanations, and including real-world application case stories
  • Updated to include additional material on nanofillers, blending and handling, and sustainability


Early- or mid-career plastics engineers and middle (engineering) managers requiring a basic overview of polyolefin additives. Most likely working in compounding, converting, design, or manufacturing areas of plastics – in sectors including packaging, automotive, consumer products, and construction. Secondary academic audience – such as students or polymer chemists unfamiliar with polyolefin applications.


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© William Andrew 2015
William Andrew
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Ratings and Reviews

About the Authors

Michael Tolinski Author

Michael Tolinski is an independent technical editor, writer, and researcher.

Affiliations and Expertise

Managing Editor, Plastics Engineering magazine (SPE)