Adaptive Responses of Native Amazonians

Adaptive Responses of Native Amazonians

1st Edition - May 28, 1983

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  • Editor: Raymond B. Hames
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483294230

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Description

Adaptive Responses of Native Amazonians investigates the adaptive responses of the aborigines of Amazonia from the ecological perspective within anthropology. The discussions are organized around the major modes of Amazonian subsistence (cultivation, hunting and fishing), nutrition, and settlement pattern. Comprised of 15 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of Amazonian ecosystems, citing environmental models of Amazonian adaptive behavior and sociocultural evolution as well as the problematic definition or measure of the concept of adaptation. The reader is then introduced to shifting cultivation among the Machiguenga, Native American inhabitants of the tropical rainforest of the Upper Amazon, and the Kuikuru, one of three Carib-speaking villages located at the headwaters of the Xingú River. Subsequent chapters focus on the adaptive strategies of the Wakuénai people to the oligotrophic rainforest of the Rio Negro Basin; neotropical hunting among the Aché of Eastern Paraguay; trekking by the Mekranoti-Kayapó Indians of Central Brazil in lowland South America; and fishing patterns among the Cocamilla Indians of Achual Tipishca in the Huallaga River Basin in northeastern Peru. The book also considers nutrition and settlement patterns among native Amazonians. This monograph will be a useful resource for anthropologists, scholars, specialists, and others who are interested in the general fields of human ecology, South American ethnology, and tropical studies.

Table of Contents


  • Contributors

    Preface

    1. Introduction

    Introduction

    Some Characteristics of Amazonian Ecosystems

    Environmental Models of Amazonian Sociocultural Evolution

    Environmental Models of Amazonian Adaptive Behavior

    The Problem of Adaptation

    I. Cultivation

    2. Machiguenga Gardens

    Introduction

    Garden Making

    Planting

    Weeding

    Harvest

    The Life Cycle of a Garden

    Input-Output

    Conclusion

    Notes

    3. The Cultivation of Manioc Among the Kuikuru of the Upper Xingú

    Introduction

    The Habitat

    Clearing the Forest

    Plot Characteristics

    Planting

    Crop Care

    Overall Cycle of Cultivation

    Harvesting

    The Processing of Manioc

    Varieties of Manioc

    Storage

    Manioc and the Supernatural

    Abandonment and Reforestation

    Overview and Interpretation

    Notes

    4. Adaptive Strategies of Wakuénai Peoples to the Oligotrophic Rain Forest of the Rio Negro Basin

    Introduction

    The Rio Negro Basin

    The Rio Negro Population

    Uxorilocal Residence: Father-in-Law Leadership in Economic Production

    Patrilocal/Uxorilocal Residence: Father-in-Law Leadership in Horizontal/Vertical Integration

    Conclusions

    II. Hunting and Fishing

    5. Neotropical Hunting Among the Aché of Eastern Paraguay

    Introduction

    Environmental and Historical Background

    Ecology and Area of Study

    Prey Species and Hunting Techniques

    Daily Hunting Routine

    Data Collection

    Time Allocation for Subsistence

    Hunting Returns and Comparison of Technologies

    The Optimal Diet Model and Hunting Strategy

    Variance in Hunting Returns Between Individuals and Age Groups

    Band Size and Hunting Returns

    Pursuit Group Size

    Summary and Discussion

    6. Shotguns, Blowguns, and Spears: The Analysis of Technological Efficiency

    Introduction

    Relevant Environmental and Cultural Features

    Hunting Behavior and Technology

    Data Collection

    The Kill and Its Meaning

    Impact of the Shotgun

    Comparison of the Blowgun to the Bow

    Conclusion

    7. Why Do the Mekranoti Trek?

    Introduction

    Explanations for Trekking

    Cross-Cultural Tests

    Conclusion

    8. Cocamilla Fishing: Patch Modification and Environmental Buffering in the Amazon Várzea

    Introduction

    Theoretical Background

    Data Collection

    Historical Background of the Cocamilla

    The Ecological Context

    Fishing Sites and Techniques

    Techniques and Personnel Involved in Lake Fishing

    Storage of Fish

    Buffering Environmental Fluctuations

    Gross Fishing Production

    Discussion

    Summary and Conclusions

    9. Carpe Diem: An Optimal Foraging Approach to Bari Fishing and Hunting

    Introduction

    Theoretical Background

    Methods and Findings

    Discussion

    10. Adaptation and Ethnozoological Classification: Theoretical Implications of Animal Resources and Diet of the Aguaruna and Huambisa

    Introduction

    The Setting

    Research Sites

    Data Base

    Sketch of Aguaruna and Huambisa Ethnozoology

    Animal Consumption Patterns

    Comparative Patterns of Animal Utilization

    Discussion

    Conclusions

    III. Nutrition

    11. Nutrition in the Northwest Amazon: Household Dietary Intake and Time-Energy Expenditure

    Introduction

    Background

    Physical Environment

    Food Resources

    Data Collection

    Results

    Household Food Supplies

    Sources of Food Energy and Protein

    Adequacy of Energy and Protein Intake

    Time and Energy Expenditure of Household Members

    Discussion

    12. Seasonal Factors in Subsistence, Nutrition, and Child Growth in a Central Brazilian Indian Community

    Introduction

    The Study Community

    Subsistence Practices

    Health and Growth

    Discussion

    Conclusions

    IV. Settlement Pattern

    13. The Settlement Pattern of a Yąnomamö Population Bloc: A Behavioral Ecological Interpretation

    Introduction

    Components of Settlement Pattern

    The Haiyamo Population Bloc

    Discussion

    Conclusion

    14. Village Movement in Relation to Resources in Amazonia

    Introduction

    Central Brazilian Settlement Pattern

    Garden Soil Depletion

    Conclusion

    15. The Territorial Dimensions of Siona-Secoya and Encabellado Adaptation

    Introduction

    The Modern Settlement

    Patterns of Resource Use

    Historical Data on Western Tucanoan Settlement Patterns

    Resource Allocation and Maintenance

    The Question of Territorial Defense

    Conclusion

    References

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 516
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1983
  • Published: May 28, 1983
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483294230

About the Editor

Raymond B. Hames

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