Adaptive Responses of Native Amazonians - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123212504, 9781483294230

Adaptive Responses of Native Amazonians

1st Edition

Editors: Raymond B. Hames
eBook ISBN: 9781483294230
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th May 1983
Page Count: 516
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Description

Adaptive Responses of Native Amazonians investigates the adaptive responses of the aborigines of Amazonia from the ecological perspective within anthropology. The discussions are organized around the major modes of Amazonian subsistence (cultivation, hunting and fishing), nutrition, and settlement pattern.

Comprised of 15 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of Amazonian ecosystems, citing environmental models of Amazonian adaptive behavior and sociocultural evolution as well as the problematic definition or measure of the concept of adaptation. The reader is then introduced to shifting cultivation among the Machiguenga, Native American inhabitants of the tropical rainforest of the Upper Amazon, and the Kuikuru, one of three Carib-speaking villages located at the headwaters of the Xingú River. Subsequent chapters focus on the adaptive strategies of the Wakuénai people to the oligotrophic rainforest of the Rio Negro Basin; neotropical hunting among the Aché of Eastern Paraguay; trekking by the Mekranoti-Kayapó Indians of Central Brazil in lowland South America; and fishing patterns among the Cocamilla Indians of Achual Tipishca in the Huallaga River Basin in northeastern Peru. The book also considers nutrition and settlement patterns among native Amazonians.

This monograph will be a useful resource for anthropologists, scholars, specialists, and others who are interested in the general fields of human ecology, South American ethnology, and tropical studies.

Table of Contents


Contributors

Preface

1. Introduction

Introduction

Some Characteristics of Amazonian Ecosystems

Environmental Models of Amazonian Sociocultural Evolution

Environmental Models of Amazonian Adaptive Behavior

The Problem of Adaptation

I. Cultivation

2. Machiguenga Gardens

Introduction

Garden Making

Planting

Weeding

Harvest

The Life Cycle of a Garden

Input-Output

Conclusion

Notes

3. The Cultivation of Manioc Among the Kuikuru of the Upper Xingú

Introduction

The Habitat

Clearing the Forest

Plot Characteristics

Planting

Crop Care

Overall Cycle of Cultivation

Harvesting

The Processing of Manioc

Varieties of Manioc

Storage

Manioc and the Supernatural

Abandonment and Reforestation

Overview and Interpretation

Notes

4. Adaptive Strategies of Wakuénai Peoples to the Oligotrophic Rain Forest of the Rio Negro Basin

Introduction

The Rio Negro Basin

The Rio Negro Population

Uxorilocal Residence: Father-in-Law Leadership in Economic Production

Patrilocal/Uxorilocal Residence: Father-in-Law Leadership in Horizontal/Vertical Integration

Conclusions

II. Hunting and Fishing

5. Neotropical Hunting Among the Aché of Eastern Paraguay

Introduction

Environmental and Historical Background

Ecology and Area of Study

Prey Species and Hunting Techniques

Daily Hunting Routine

Data Collection

Time Allocation for Subsistence

Hunting Returns and Comparison of Technologies

The Optimal Diet Model and Hunting Strategy

Variance in Hunting Returns Between Individuals and Age Groups

Band Size and Hunting Returns

Pursuit Group Size

Summary and Discussion

6. Shotguns, Blowguns, and Spears: The Analysis of Technological Efficiency

Introduction

Relevant Environmental and Cultural Features

Hunting Behavior and Technology

Data Collection

The Kill and Its Meaning

Impact of the Shotgun

Comparison of the Blowgun to the Bow

Conclusion

7. Why Do the Mekranoti Trek?

Introduction

Explanations for Trekking

Cross-Cultural Tests

Conclusion

8. Cocamilla Fishing: Patch Modification and Environmental Buffering in the Amazon Várzea

Introduction

Theoretical Background

Data Collection

Historical Background of the Cocamilla

The Ecological Context

Fishing Sites and Techniques

Techniques and Personnel Involved in Lake Fishing

Storage of Fish

Buffering Environmental Fluctuations

Gross Fishing Production

Discussion

Summary and Conclusions

9. Carpe Diem: An Optimal Foraging Approach to Bari Fishing and Hunting

Introduction

Theoretical Background

Methods and Findings

Discussion

10. Adaptation and Ethnozoological Classification: Theoretical Implications of Animal Resources and Diet of the Aguaruna and Huambisa

Introduction

The Setting

Research Sites

Data Base

Sketch of Aguaruna and Huambisa Ethnozoology

Animal Consumption Patterns

Comparative Patterns of Animal Utilization

Discussion

Conclusions

III. Nutrition

11. Nutrition in the Northwest Amazon: Household Dietary Intake and Time-Energy Expenditure

Introduction

Background

Physical Environment

Food Resources

Data Collection

Results

Household Food Supplies

Sources of Food Energy and Protein

Adequacy of Energy and Protein Intake

Time and Energy Expenditure of Household Members

Discussion

12. Seasonal Factors in Subsistence, Nutrition, and Child Growth in a Central Brazilian Indian Community

Introduction

The Study Community

Subsistence Practices

Health and Growth

Discussion

Conclusions

IV. Settlement Pattern

13. The Settlement Pattern of a Yąnomamö Population Bloc: A Behavioral Ecological Interpretation

Introduction

Components of Settlement Pattern

The Haiyamo Population Bloc

Discussion

Conclusion

14. Village Movement in Relation to Resources in Amazonia

Introduction

Central Brazilian Settlement Pattern

Garden Soil Depletion

Conclusion

15. The Territorial Dimensions of Siona-Secoya and Encabellado Adaptation

Introduction

The Modern Settlement

Patterns of Resource Use

Historical Data on Western Tucanoan Settlement Patterns

Resource Allocation and Maintenance

The Question of Territorial Defense

Conclusion

References

Index

Details

No. of pages:
516
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1983
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9781483294230

About the Editor

Raymond B. Hames