A Practical Course in Biology

A Practical Course in Biology

The Commonwealth and International Library: Biology Division

1st Edition - January 1, 1971

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  • Authors: W. Belfield, M. Dearden
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483181479

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Description

A Practical Course in Biology provides various experiments biologists or those in biology related fields usually perform, mainly encompassing experimenting with animals and plants. As this book provides a practical course in biology, it first discusses the instrument commonly used in laboratory experiments—the microscope. Then, this text shifts to studying various organisms, including plants and animals and their biological characteristics and mechanisms. This selection ends with the practical techniques and methods in biology, such as dissecting, cleaning glassware, specimen preservation, and killing laboratory animals. This book will come in handy for students and experts in the field of general biology and related fields.

Table of Contents


  • Introduction

    Acknowledgments

    1 Microscopy

    Setting up the Microscope

    Simple Microscopical Observations

    Measurement of Microscopical Objects (Micrometry)

    Examination of Pondwater

    Section Cutting

    Temporary Staining of Plant Sections

    Leishman's Stain for Blood Smears

    Squash Preparation of Chromosomes of Root-tip, Stained in Proprionic-orcein

    Whole Mounts

    2 Variety of Organisms

    Protista: Schizomycophyta, Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta, Chrysophyta, Rhizopoda, Flagellata, Ciliophora, Sporozoa, Mycophyta

    Metaphyta: Bryophyta, Sphenopsida, Pteropsida

    Metazoa: Coelenterata

    Platyhelminthes, Nematoda, Annelida, Arthropoda, Mollusca

    Echinodermata, Chordata

    3 Structure and Physiology of the Mammal

    Dissection of the Rat

    The Skeleton of the Rabbit

    Movement

    How Movement is Caused by Muscles

    Muscular Contraction and ATP

    Nutrition

    Food Tests

    To Show that Foods Contain Carbon

    To Show that Protein Contains Nitrogen

    To Show that Fat Gives out More Heat than Sugar

    Physical Properties of Foods

    Tongue and Taste

    Taste and Smell

    Function of Various Types of Teeth

    Functional Anatomy of Teeth

    Action of Ptyalin

    Action of Pancreatin

    Action of Chymase (Rennin)

    Emulsification of Fats and Oils

    Absorbing Area of the Intestine

    Circulation

    Counting of Red Blood-cells

    Watch Pocket Valves

    Movement of Blood in Fish, Frog, Tadpole

    Action of Capillary in Smoothing out Varying Pressure

    Respiration

    To Dhow that Animals Use Oxygen

    Sweat

    Presence of Salts in Sweat

    To Show That Evaporation Cools

    Excretion

    To Show the Presence of Nitrogen in Urine

    To Show the Presence of Uric Acid in Bird Droppings

    Skin

    Surface Anatomy of the Skin

    The Skin as a Temperature Receptor

    Sensitivity of the Body to Touch

    Regulation of Water Balance

    Reflex Actions

    Eye and Ear

    Focusing of the Human Eye

    Action of the Iris

    Presence of the Blind Spot

    Calculation of the Size of the Blind Spot

    Field of Vision in the Human Eye

    Importance of Stereoscopic Vision

    Function and Mechanism of Semicircular Canals

    Muscular Control of Posture

    4 Structure and Physiology of the Flowering Plant

    Plant Anatomy

    Photosynthesis

    Test for Starch in the Plant

    Necessity of Light for Photosynthesis

    Necessity of Light for the Development of Chlorophyll

    Necessity of Chlorophyll for Photosynthesis

    Necessity of Carbon Dioxide for Photosynthesis

    Production of Oxygen in Photosynthesis

    Respiration

    Production of Carbon Dioxide and Water during Burning of Sugar and Fat

    Gaseous Exchange in Respiration

    Anaerobic Respiration

    Production of Carbon Dioxide during Respiration of Plants and Animals

    Production of Heat by Plants and Animals

    Water and Mineral Relations

    Demonstration of Osmosis

    Molecular Movement in Osmosis (Model)

    Osmosis in Living Material

    Root Pressure

    Rise of Water in Xylem

    Capillarity

    Rise of Mineral Salts in Stem

    Water Culture of Plants

    Diffusion

    Loss of Water from a Plant

    Site of Water Loss from a Plant

    Stomatal Preparation

    Model of Stomata

    Variation of Speed of Water Loss

    Effect of Leaf-suction in Raising Water up a Plant

    Transpiration Pull

    Reproduction

    Spore Release in Moss

    Spore Release in Fern

    To grow the Prothallus of a Fern

    Germination of Pollen

    Function of Pollen

    Seed Dispersal

    Vegetative Propagation

    Germination of Seed

    Presence of the Micropyle

    Function of the Micropyle

    Conditions for Germination

    Plant growth and Movement

    Region of Root Sensitive to Gravity

    Region of Root Responsive to Gravity

    To Show that Geotropic Movement of Root is Not Due to the Weight of the Root

    Negative Response of Shoot to Gravity

    Growth of Root when Gravity is Neutralized

    Hormonal Control of Geotropism

    Control of Growth by Tip of Shoot

    Bending Towards Light Controlled by Shoot Tip

    Area of Shoot Responsive to Light

    Thigmotropism

    Thermonasty

    Seismonasty

    Chemotropism

    Regions of Growth in Radicle and Shoot

    Structure and Growth of Winter Bud

    Soil

    Mechanical Analysis of Soil

    Estimation of Water-soluble Mineral Content of Soil

    Separation of Small Animals from Soil

    Effect of Water when Frozen in Confined Space

    Amount of Air in Soils

    Permeability of Soil to Air

    Water Retention by Soil

    Porosity of Soil to Water

    Capillary Action of Soil

    Clay Content of Soil

    Water Erosion

    Amount of Water in Soil

    Amount of Organic Matter in Soil

    pH of Soil

    Solutions for Hydroponic Culture of Green Plants

    5 The Cell and its Properties

    Movement of Water into and out of Living Cells

    Selective Uptake of Solutes by Yeast

    Extraction of Amino-acids and Proteins from Plant Tissue, and their Analysis Paper Chromatography

    Optimum Temperature and pH for an Enzyme

    6 Growth and Differentiation

    Growth-rate of DrosopMa at Varying Temperatures

    Ligaturation of Developing Blowfly Larvae

    Growth Curves for Mice

    Embryology

    7 Ecology

    Suitable Places and Approaches for Field-study

    Suggestions for Field Investigations

    Identification

    Surveys of Populations

    Construction of Keys for Identification

    8 Genetics

    Genetical Experiments with Drosophila

    Salivary Gland Chromosome Preparation of Drosophila

    Distribution of Certain Characteristics in Human Populations

    The Hardy-Weinberg Law

    9 Evolution

    Environment and Gene-expression

    Normal Distribution

    Collecting Fossils in the British Isles

    Fossil Finding and Dating

    10 Culture Methods for Common Laboratory Organisms

    Amoeba

    Paramecium

    Hydra

    Earthworms

    Daphnia and Cyclops

    Cockroaches

    Locusts

    Drosophila

    Butterflies

    Bees

    Houseflies

    Frogs

    Mice

    Bacteria and Fungi

    Gram's Stain for Bacteria

    11 Practical Techniques and Methods

    Dissection

    Drawings

    Experimental Records

    Graphs

    Some Simple Applications of Statistics in Biology

    Arithmetic Mean

    Variance

    t-test

    Chi-squared Test

    Null-hypothesis

    Coefficient of Correlation

    Standard Error of the Mean

    Cleaning of Glassware

    Killing Animals

    Preservation of Specimens

    Oil-immersion

    Incubator

    Solutions—preparation and Concentration

    Buffer Solutions

    Other Solutions, Stains, Chemicals, Mountants

    Sources of Supply

    Book List

    Accident Prevention and First Aid

    S.I. Units

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 188
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 2013
  • Published: January 1, 1971
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483181479

About the Authors

W. Belfield

M. Dearden

About the Editor

G. L. Watt

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