Wettability book cover

Wettability

The wettability of oil reservoirs is the most important factor controlling the rate of oil recovery, providing a profound effect on petroleum production. The petroleum industry has increased the research effort on wettability, but, so far, there has never been a comprehensive book on the topic. This is the first book to go through all of the major research and applications on wettability, capillary pressure and improved recovery. Critical topics including core preservation, the effect of wettability on relative permeability, surface forces such as van der Waals equation of state, petroleum traps and pore size effects are all included in this musthave handbook. Deciphering the techniques and examples will increase the efficiency and production of oil recovery, translating to stronger reservoir simulations and improved well production.

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Published: November 2013

Imprint: Gulf Publishing Company

ISBN: 978-0-12-799990-6

Contents


  • Preface

    Nomenclature

    About the Authors

    1 Wettability

    The Four States of Wettability

    Water-Wet System

    Fractionally-Wet

    Mixed-Wet

    Oil-Wet

    Interfacial Tension

    Contact Angle

    Advancing and Receding Contact Angles

    Core Preservation

    Capillary Pressure

    Amott Wettability Index

    Combined Amott-USBM Wettability Test

    Spontaneous Imbibition

    Oil Recovery by Imbibition

    Spreading

    Effect of Wettability on Relative Permeability

    Effect of Wettability on Waterfloods

    Procedures

    Production Curves

    Effects of Viscosity

    Effects of Wettability on Electrical Properties

    Dispersion and Wettability

    Introduction

    Applications

    Theory

    Influence of Wettability

    Example Problems

    2 Surface Forces

    Introduction

    Van der Waals Equation of State

    Electrostatic Interactive Energies

    Dielectric Media

    Principle Interactive Forces

    Short-Range Forces

    London Dispersion Forces

    Dipole Forces

    Keesom Dipole-Dipole Forces

    Debye-Induced Dipole Interactions

    Van der Waals Forces

    Zeta Potential and the Electric Double Layer Interaction

    DLVO (Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, and Overbeek) Theory

    Hamaker Constant

    Disjoining Pressure

    Electrostatic Forces

    Poisson-Boltzman Equation

    Counterion Density with Respect to Distance (Diffuse Double Layer)

    Osmotic Repulsion Pressure

    Hydration Forces

    Disjoining Pressure and the Canonical Potential

    Hydrogen Bonding

    Summary of Interactive Forces

    Lewis Acid/Base Reactions

    Solvent Behavior

    Solid Surface Interactions with Solutions

    Clay Swelling and Particle Movement

    Crude Oil/Solid Surface Interactions

    Example Problems

    3 Wettability and Production

    Introduction. Origin and Accumulation of Hydrocarbons

    Petroleum Traps

    Primary Migration

    Secondary Migration

    Buoyant Forces

    Capillary Forces

    Earth Tides and Secondary Migration

    Accumulation of Hydrocarbons in Traps

    Subsurface Environment

    Pore Surface Properties

    Multiphase Flow

    Vertical Saturation Profile

    Fractured Reservoirs

    Mobility Ratio

    Fractional Flow Equation

    Frontal Advance Equation

    Impact of Wettability on Waterfloods

    Example Problems

    4 Pore Size Effects and Wettability Alteration

    Introduction

    Porosity

    Pore Structure

    Pore Texture

    Sandstones

    Carbonate Rocks

    Pore Size Distribution

    Permeability from Pore Size Distributions

    Carman-Kozeny Equation

    Flow Properties of Porous Media

    Wettability Alteration

    Polar Compounds in Crude Oils

    Alkaline Compounds

    Capillary Number

    Surfactants

    Wettability Alteration Caused by Microbes

    Chemistry of Silica Sand

    Chemistry of Limestone, Chalk and Dolomite

    Properties of Crude Oils that Affect Wettability

    Asphaltene Solvency of Crude Oils

    Adsorption on Reservoir Rocks

    Summary and General Conclusions

    Example Calculations

    5 Practical Applications of Wettability

    Introduction

    Wettability and Primary and Secondary Recovery Efficiency

    Wettability and Tertiary Recovery Efficiency

    Thermally-Induced Wettability Alteration for Improved Recovery

    Ghaba North Field

    Qarn Alam Field

    Preventing Adverse Wettability Shift during Enhanced Recovery Process

    Field Test of the CaCO3 Deposition Process at Elk Point Thermal Pilot

    Improved Oil Recovery by Altering Wettability by Chemical Injection

    Determination of Applicability of Wettability Reversal

    Effect of Drilling and Completion Fluids on Wellbore Wettability and Its Stability

    Minimizing Formation Damage by Controlling Wettability

    Example Problems

    6 Fortran Computer Programs

    Introduction

    Dispersion

    Two-Phase Fractional Flow

    Pore Size Distribution

    Pores Size Distribution

    Permeability Estimation

    Relative Permeability

    USBM Wettability Index

    A Front Tracking Program

    Introduction

    Bibliography

    Index


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