Wetland Systems to Control Urban Runoff


  • Scholz Miklas, Civil Engineering Research Group, The University of Salford, Greater Manchester, UK
  • M. Scholz, The University of Edingburgh, U.K.

Wetland Systems to Control Urban Runoff integrates natural and constructed wetlands, and sustainable drainage techniques into traditional water and wastewater systems used to treat surface runoff and associated diffuse pollution. The first part of the text introduces the fundamentals of water quality management, and water and wastewater treatment. The remaining focus of the text is on reviewing treatment technologies, disinfection issues, sludge treatment and disposal options, and current case studies related to constructed wetlands applied for runoff and diffuse pollution treatment. Professionals and students will be interested in the detailed design, operation, management, process control and water quality monitoring and applied modeling issues.
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Professionals, researchers, and upper division undergraduate and graduate level students in the water and environmental engineering, science and management areas, as well as in the wastewater industry.


Book information

  • Published: August 2006
  • Imprint: ELSEVIER
  • ISBN: 978-0-444-52734-9


"This new book, written by IEMA member Miklas Scholz (featured in ‘the environmentalist’ March 2006), covers the water and environmental engineering essentials relevant to the drainage and treatment of stormwater, wastewater and contaminated water from predominantly urban areas. Based on this 10 years’ experience in urban water research, Dr. Scholz successfully presents a book appealing to readers with different levels of experience and knowledge, including those less familiar with water quality management, to professions and students interested in design, process and management details. It is recommended as a most useful reference and textbook, combining case studies with the latest research finding in urban water management technology." --Magazine of the IEMA, December 2006

Table of Contents

About the AuthorPrefaceAcknowledgementsAcronyms and AbbreviationsDedicationsContents1 Water Quality Standards1.1 Introduction and Historical Aspects1.2 Water Quality Standards and Treatment Objectives1.3 Some Thoughts on the Standards2 Water Treatment2.1 Sources of Water2.2 Standard Water Treatment2.3 Basic Water Chemistry3 Sewage Treatment3.1 Introduction3.2 Design Flow Rates3.3 Treatment Principles3.4 Engineering Classification of Sewage Treatment Stages4 Organic Effluent4.1 Biochemical Oxygen Demand4.2 BOD Test4.3 Chemical Oxygen Demand4.4 Other Variables Used for the Characterization of Wastewater5 Stream Pollution and Effluent Standards5.1 Organic Stream Pollution5.2 Prediction of Organic Stream Pollution5.3 Effluent Discharge Standard Principles6 Preliminary Treatment6.1 Introduction6.2 Design of Screening Units6.3 Design Details for Screening Units6.4 Comminutors6.5 Grit Removal7 Primary Treatment7.1 Introduction7.2 Loading Rate Methods7.3 Tank Design7.4 Design Parameters7.4.1 Design Settling Velocity7.4.2 Horizontal Velocity7.4.3 Time Ratio7.5 Economics of Construction7.5.1 Rectangular Settling Tanks7.5.2 Circular Settling Tanks7.6 Design Details7.6.1 Rectangular Settling Tanks7.6.2 Circular Settling Tanks7.7 Hydraulic Losses7.8 General Design Details7.9 Details of Various Types of Sedimentation Tanks7.9.1 Storm Tanks7.9.2 Primary Sedimentation Tanks7.9.2.1 Quiescent Tanks7.9.2.2 Rectangular Horizontal-flow Tanks7.9.2.3 Imhoff Flow Tanks7.9.2.4 Radial-flow Tanks7.9.3 Secondary Sedimentation7.10 Sedimentation Aids8 Theory of Settling8.1 Introduction8.2 Classification of Settling Behaviour8.2.1 Class I Settling8.2.2 Class II Settling8.2.3 Class III and Class IV Settling8.3 Ideal Settling9 Coagulation and Flocculation9.1 Introduction9.2 Colloidal Suspensions9.3 Coagulation Processes9.4 Coagulation Chemicals9.4.1 Aluminium Compounds9.4.2 Sodium Aluminate9.4.3 Iron Salts9.4.4 Coagulation Aids9.5 Operation of the Coagulation and Flocculation Process9.6 Rapid Mixing9.7 Flocculation10 Sludge Blanket Clarifiers10.1 Introduction to the Sludge Blanket Clarification System10.1.1 Rapid Mixing and Delay Time10.1.2 Inlet System to the Clarifier10.1.3 Sludge Blanket and Flocculation Zone10.1.4 Supernatant Clear Water Zone10.1.5 Excess Sludge Removal System10.1.6 Clarified Water Collection System10.2 Types of Sludge Blanket Clarifiers10.2.1 Hopper-bottomed Tank10.2.2 Flat-bottomed Tank10.2.3 Pulsator10.2.4 Plate Type Pulsator10.2.5 Super Pulsator10.3 Plate Settling in Sludge Blanket Clarifiers11 Flotation System11.1 Flotation Using Blown Air11.2 Flotation Using Dissolved Air11.3 Flotation Units11.3.1 Technology11.3.2 Water Feed11.3.3 Formation of Bubbles11.3.4 Collection and Removal of Sludge12 Slow Filtration12.1 Introduction12.2 Slow Sand Filtration12.2.1 Elements of a Slow Sand Filter12.2.2 Mechanisms in a Slow Sand Filter12.3 Algal Actions12.4 Summary of Slow Sand Filtration13 Rapid Filtration13.1 Elements of a Rapid Sand Filter13.2 Sand Bed13.3 Underdrain System13.4 Hydraulics of Filtration13.5 Summary of Rapid Sand Filtration14 Biological Treatment14.1 Aerobic Self-purification14.2 Waste Stabilization Ponds14.2.1 Aerobic Ponds14.2.2 Facultative Ponds15 Biological Filtration15.1 Introduction15.2 Trickling Filter15.3 Basic Ecology15.4 Process Variants15.5 Design of Biological Filters16 Constructed Wetlands16.1 Background16.2 Definitions16.3 Hydrology of Wetlands16.3.1 Hydroperiod and Water Budget16.3.2 Precipitation, Interception, Through-fall and Stem-flow16.4 Wetland Chemistry16.4.1 Oxygen16.4.2 Carbon16.4.3 Nitrogen16.4.4 Phosphorus16.4.5 Sulphur16.5 Wetland Ecosystem Mass Balance16.6 Macrophytes in Wetlands16.6.1 Primary Productivity16.6.2 Phragmites australis16.6.3 Typha latifolia16.7 Physical and Biochemical Parameters16.8 Natural and Constructed Wetlands16.8.1 Riparian Wetlands16.8.2 Constructed Treatment Wetlands16.8.3 Constructed Wetlands for Storm Water Treatment17 Rotating Biological Contactors17.1 Introduction17.2 Principle of Operation17.3 Design and Loading Criteria17.4 Principle Elements17.5 Operational Problems18 Activated Sludge Processes18.1 Background18.2 Activated Sludge Process18.3 Activated Sludge Process Versus Percolating Filtration18.4 Activated Sludge Processes Types18.4.1 Conventional Complete Mix Activated Sludge Process18.4.2 Series or Plug Flow System18.4.3 Tapered Aeration18.4.4 Step Feed Activated Sludge18.4.5 High Rate Activated Sludge Process18.4.6 Extended Aeration18.4.7 Contact Stabilization18.4.8 Oxidation Ditches18.4.9 Deep Shaft Process18.5 Activated Sludge Process Design and Kinetics18.5.1 Diffused Air Aeration18.5.2 Mechanical Aerators18.5.3 Process Design18.5.3.1 Kinetics of Biological Growth18.5.3.2 Application of Kinetics18.5.3.3 Complete Mix Reactor (No Recycle) Complete Mix Cellular Reactor (Recycle) Plug Flow (Cellular Recycle)18.6 Summary of Activated Sludge Processes18.6.1 Loading Criteria18.6.2 Reactor Types18.6.3 Oxygen Demand18.6.4 Nutrient Requirements19 Iron and Manganese Removal19.1 Introduction19.2 Problems with Iron and Manganese19.3 Basic Removal Processes19.4 Advanced Removal Processes20 Water Softening20.1 Introduction20.2 Chemistry of Water Softening20.3 Lime-Soda Softening20.4 Lime Softening20.5 Excess Lime Softening20.6 Lime Recovery21 Water Microbiology21.1 Statistics for Applied Microbiology21.2 Protozoa21.2.1 Trophic Structure21.2.2 Kingdom Protista21.3 Biological Effects of Organic Pollutants21.3.1 Sewage Fungus21.3.2 Saprobic System21.4 Eutrophication and Water Treatment21.5 Protozoology of Treatment Processes21.6 Odour and Toxins of Natural Origin21.7 Public Health Aspects21.7.1 Typical Diseases Related to Waters21.7.2 Invertebrates Found in Main Supplies21.7.3 Monitoring and Prevention of Waterborne Diseases22 Disinfection22.1 Destroying Pathogens and Requirements of a Disinfectant22.2 Traditional Methods of Disinfection22.3 Ozone22.4 Chlorine Dioxide22.5 Chlorine as a Disinfectant22.6 Kinetics of Chlorination22.7 Applications of Chlorine22.8 Technology of Chlorine Addition22.9 Advantages and Disadvantages of Chlorine23 Sludge Treatment and Disposal23.1 Introduction23.2 Characteristics of Wastewater Sludges23.3 Characterization of Wastewater Sludges23.4 Volume of Sludge23.5 Tests for Dewatering of Sludges23.6 Sludge Treatment and Disposal Objectives and Methods23.7 Treatment Processes23.7.1 Lagoons23.7.2 Aerobic Digestion23.7.3 Other Treatment Methods23.8 Thickening and Dewatering of Sludges23.8.1 Chemical Conditioning23.8.2 Air Drying23.8.3 Gravity Thickening23.8.4 Other Methods23.9 Partial Disposal23.9.1 Incineration23.9.2 Pyrolysis23.9.3 Composting23.10 Land Dumping and Passive Treatment24 Wetlands Treating Contaminated Stream Water24.1 Summary24.2 Introduction24.3 Materials and Methods24.3.1 Experimental Plan and Limitations24.3.2 Filter Media Composition24.3.3 Environmental Conditions and Operation24.3.4 Analytical Procedures Including Metal Determination24.3.5 Micro-biological Examinations24.3.6 Statistics24.4 Results and Discussion24.4.1 Comparison of Treatment Efficiency24.4.2 Water Quality and Macrophytes24.4.3 Water Quality and Microbiology24.4.4 Regression and Correlation Analysis as Predictive Tools24.5 Conclusions25 Wetland Systems to Control Roof Runoff25.1 Summary25.2 Introduction25.2.1 Sustainable Roof Runoff Drainage25.2.2 Case study: Site description25.2.3 Purpose25.3 Methods25.3.1 Design of the Study Site25.3.2 Engineering Methods25.3.3 Water Quality Analysis25.3.4 Control of Algal Growth25.3.5 System Capacity25.4 Results and Discussion25.4.1 Standard Design Considerations25.4.2 System Design Comparisons25.4.3 Water Quality Management25.4.4 Twenty-four Hour Water Quality Monitoring25.4.5 Aquatic Plant Management25.5 Conclusions26 Wetlands Treating Road Runoff26.1 Case Study Summary26.2 Introduction26.2.1 Constructed Wetlands Treating Metal-contaminated Runoff26.2.2 Purpose26.3 Site, Materials and Methodology26.3.1 Case Study Site26.3.2 Filter Design, Media Composition and Limitations26.3.3 Environmental Conditions and Operation26.3.4 Metal Nitrates26.3.5 Metal Determinations26.3.6 BOD, Nutrient and Other Determinations26.4 Experimental Results and Discussion26.4.1 Inflow Water Quality Analysis26.4.2 Comparison of Annual Outflow Water Qualities26.4.3 Heavy Metal Removal26.4.4 Link Between pH and Treatment of Metals26.4.5 Analysis of Variance and Modelling26.5 Conclusions and Further Work27 Combined Wetland and Below Ground Detention Systems27.1 Experimental Case Study Summary27.2 Introduction27.2.1 Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems27.2.2 Project Purpose27.3 Materials and Methods27.3.1 System Design and Operation27.3.2 Analytical Methods27.4 Results and Discussion27.4.1 Comparison of Costs27.4.2 Inflow Water Quality27.4.3 Comparison of Outflow Water Quality27.4.4 Ecosoil and Turf27.5 Conclusions and Further Research28 Modelling of Constructed Wetland Performance28.1 Summary28.2 Introduction28.2.1 Project Purpose28.2.2 Machine Learning Applied to Wastewater Treatment Processes28.3 Methodology and Software28.3.1 Experimental Data and Variables28.3.2 K-nearest Neighbours28.3.3 Support Vector Machine28.3.4 Self-organizing Map28.4 Results and Discussion28.4.1 Performance Evaluation28.4.2 Correlation Analysis28.4.3 Optimization of Input Variables28.4.4 Comparison of Applications28.5 Conclusions29 Infiltration Wetland Systems29.1 Summary29.2 Introduction29.2.1 Need for SUDS and Critical Issues29.2.2 Aim and Objectives29.3 Methods29.3.1 Design of Study Site29.3.2 Hydrological Methods and Water Quality Analysis29.3.3 Fish Experiment Methodologies29.4 Results and Discussion29.4.1 Design and Operation of Infiltration Ponds29.4.2 Rainfall, Runoff and Infiltration Relationships29.4.3 Water Quality Assessment and Management29.4.4 Active Control of Algae with Goldfish29.4.5 Integration of SUDS into Urban Planning and Development29.5 Conclusions30 Sustainable Urban Drainage System Model30.1 Summary30.2 Introduction30.2.1 Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems30.2.2 SUDS Impact on Water Quantity and Quality30.2.3 Development and Regeneration in Glasgow30.2.4 Sustainable Drainage Systems in Edinburgh30.2.5 Aims and Objectives30.3 Sites and Methodology30.3.1 Overview of Sites in Glasgow and Edinburgh30.3.2 SUDS Decision Support Matrix and Weighting System30.3.3 SUDS Decision Support Model30.3.4 Prevalence Rating Approach for SUDS Techniques30.3.5 Case-based Reasoning Model30.4 Results and Discussion30.4.1 SUDS Decision Support Model Output30.4.2 PRAST Analysis30.4.3 Case-based Reasoning Model Output30.5 Conclusions31 Natural Wetlands Treating Diffuse Pollution31.1 Case Study Overview31.1.1 Summary31.1.2 Overview of the Content31.2 Introduction31.2.1 Background of the Case Study31.2.2 Nutrient Transformations and Removal Processes31.2.3 Aim and Objectives31.3 Materials and Methods31.3.1 Case Study and Sampling31.3.2 Ditches and the Channel of the River Eider31.3.3 Discharge Determination for Open Channels31.3.4 Water Quality Analyses31.3.5 Vegetation Characterization31.3.6 Data Analysis31.4 Results31.4.1 Characteristics of Watercourses in the River Eider Valley31.4.2 Water Quality During Spring and Summer31.4.3 Ditch Vegetation31.5 Discussion31.5.1 Disappearance of Ditches Due to Vegetation Growth31.5.2 Water Quality Variations Within the Study Area31.5.3 Vegetation Characterization31.5.4 Hydraulic Changes Due to Summer Flooding31.6 ConclusionsReferencesIndexBack Cover