Vitamin D book cover

Vitamin D

Two-Volume Set

Vitamin D, a steroid hormone, has mainly been known for its effects on bone and osteoporosis. The current therapeutic practices expand into such markets as cancer research, pediatrics, nephrology, dermatology, immunology, and genetics. This 3e includes over 100 chapters covering everything from chemistry and metabolism to mechanisms of action, diagnosis and management, new analogs, and emerging therapies. This complete reference works is a must-have resource for anyone working in endocrinology, osteology, bone biology, or cancer research.

Bone specialists, endocrinologists, basic scientists and researchers interested in vitamin D and osteoporosis prevention.


Published: June 2011

Imprint: Academic Press

ISBN: 978-0-12-381978-9


  • "In this brief review, it is impossible to cover all the nuances of vitamin D addressed in this book. Interested readers may want to peruse the book chapters to assess relevance to their personal interests. I regard this impressive text as a ‘‘must have’’ in the medical libraries of most hospitals. Clinicians and researchers with an interest in vitamin D may want their own personal copy for ready reference. I highly recommend it and congratulate the authors and editors in providing a much needed reference text on arguably one of the more important nutrients to our species."--American Journal of Human Biology

    "In this remarkable compendium, the editors provide a fresh and comprehensive review of a multifaceted and sometimes controversial vitamin D. This third edition is not just an update, but a greatly expanded work organized to authoritatively cover the evidence for new roles of vitamin D in cardiovascular health, immunity, psychiatric disorders, and much more. In more than 100 chapters, experts span the history of vitamin D, update its molecular mechanism and chemistry, provide specifics of clinical use in disorders of the skeleton, and review progress in an array of diseases including diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis, and psoriasis. In this edition one finds new information for a broad audience including internal medicine, nutrition, orthopedics, basic scientists, and teachers. How does one define optimal vitamin D status? How does vitamin D affect innate immunity? What are the epigenetic modifications of the vitamin D receptor that contribute to its function? Are there other natural ligands for the vitamin D receptor? These are a part of the new increased scope of Vitamin D, Third Edition. If you are interested in vitamin D, you should have this book."

    -Mark S. Nanes, MD, PhD, Professor of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA

    "The Third Edition of the classic text Vitamin D is a superb summary of an important and topical issue. Its contributors are truly experts in the field and they have managed to comprehensively describe the biochemistry, pharmacology and effects of vitamin D as well as to eloquently weave in the relevant biology of bone, muscle, immunology and other relevant tissues. The 105 readable chapters offer a complete and well balanced mix of basic and clinical topics that provides an opportunity to understand the full breadth of vitamin D action. Each section represents an excellent summary of up-to-date information and, as a whole, this text offers an outstanding resource that will appeal to a broad spectrum of readers - from students to established clinicians and investigators."

    -Eric Orwoll, MD, Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Clinical Nutrition, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, USA

    "The Third Edition of Vitamin D is well written, comprehensive and balanced. Several of the new chapters, such as Epigenetic Modifications and Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling, have strayed away from the "traditional" vitamin D but the authors have put these topics very clearly into perspective in ways that will be valuable to those studying vitamin D action. The overall list of authors for this book is a virtual '"who's who" of vitamin D research, and the coverage of the topic is appropriately broad, including those matters in nutrition and epidemiology that have been the subject of much interest in recent years."

    -T. Jack Martin, AO MD DSC FRACP FRCPA FAA FRS, John Holt Fellow, Emeritus Professor of Medicine
    Bone, Joint & Cancer Unit, St Vincent's Institute, Victoria, Australia


  • Section I: Chemistry, Metabolism, Circulation

    1 Historical Overview of Vitamin D

    Hector F. Deluca

    2 Photobiology of Vitamin D

    Michael F. Holick

    3 The Activating Enzymes of Vitamin D Metabolism (25- and 1a-Hydroxylases)

    Glenville Jones and David E. Prosser

    4 CYP24A1: Structure, Function, and Physiological Role

    Rene St. Arnaud

    5 The Vitamin D Binding Protein: DBP

    Roger Bouillon

    6 Industrial Aspects of Vitamin D

    Arnold L. Hirsch

    Section II: Mechanisms of Action

    7 VDR

    J. Wesley Pike

    8 Nuclear Vitamin D Receptor: Natural Ligands, Molecular Structure-Function, and Transcriptional Control of Vital Genes

    Mark R. Haussler, Carol A. Haussler, Jui-Cheng Hsieh, Peter W. Jurutka, and G. Kerr Whitfield

    9 Structural Basis for Ligand Activity in VDR

    Dino Moras and Natacha Rochel

    10 Coregulators of VDR-mediated Gene Expression

    Paul McDonald and Diane R. Dowd

    11 Target Genes of Vitamin D: Spatio-temporal Interaction of Chromatin, VDR and Response Elements

    Carsten Carlberg

    12 Epigenetic Modifications in Vitamin D Receptor Mediated Transrepression

    Shigeaki Kato, Alexander Kouzmenko, Fumiaki Ohtake, and Ryoji Fujiki

    13 Vitamin D and Wnt/ß-Catenin Signaling

    Albert Munoz, José Manuel González-Sancho, and María Jesús Larriba

    14 Vitamin D Response Element Binding Protein

    John S. Adams, Thomas S. Lisse, Hong Chen, Mark S. Nanes, and Martin Hewison

    15 Vitamin D Sterol/VDR Conformational Dynamics and Nongenomic Actions

    Anthony W. Norman and Mathew T. Mizwicki

    Section III: Mineral and Bone Homeostasis

    16 Development of the Skeleton

    Jane B. Lian, Gary S. Stein, Martin Montecino, Janet L. Stein, Andre J. van Wijnen

    17 Vitamin D Regulation of Osteoblast Function

    Renny Franchesci and Yan Li

    18 Osteoclasts

    F. Patrick Ross

    19 Molecular Mechanisms for Regulation of Intestinal Calcium and Phosphate Absorption by Vitamin D

    James Fleet and Ryan D. Schoch

    20 The Calbindins: Calbindin-D28K and Calbindin-D9K and the Epithelial Calcium Channels TRPV5 and TRPV6

    Sylvia Christakos, Leila Mady, and Puneet Dhawan

    21 Mineralization

    Adele Boskey and Eve Donnelly


    Barbara Kream and Alexander Lichtler

    23 Target Genes: Bone Proteins

    Howard Morris, Paul H. Anderson, Gerald J. Atkins, and David M. Findlay

    24 Vitamin D and the Calcium-Sensing Receptor

    Edward M. Brown

    25 Effects of 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 on Voltage-Sensitive Calcium Channels in Osteoblast Differentiation and Morphology

    Mary Farach-Carson and William R. Thompson

    Section IV: Targets (David/John/Wes)

    26 Vitamin D and the Kidney

    Rajiv Kumar and Peter Tebben

    27 Vitamin D and the Parathyroids

    Justin Silver and Tally Neveh-Many

    28 Cartilage

    Barbara D. Boyan, Maryam Doroudi and Zvi Schwartz

    29 Vitamin D and Oral Heath

    Ariane Berdal, Muriel Molla, Vianney Descroix

    30 The Role of Vitamin D and its Receptor in Skin and Hair Follicle Biology

    Marie B. Demay

    31 Vitamin D and the Cardiovascular System

    David Gardner, Songcang Chen, Denis Glenn, and Wei Ni

    32 Vitamin D: A Neurosteroid Affecting Brain Development and Function; Implications for Neurological and Psychiatric Disorders

    John McGrath, Darryl Eyles, and Thomas Burne

    33 Contributions of Genetically Modified Mouse Models to Understanding the Physiology and Pathophysiology of the 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1-alpha Hydroxylase Enzyme [1a(OH)ase] and the Vitamin D Receptor (VDR)

    David Goltzman, Geoffrey N. Hendy, and Richard Kremer

    Section V: Human Physiology

    34 Vitamin D: Role in the Calcium and Phosphorus Economies

    Robert P. Heaney

    35 Fetus, Neonate and Infant

    Chris Kovacs

    36 Vitamin D Deficiency and Calcium Absorption During Childhood

    Steven A. Abrams

    37 Adolescence and Acquisition of Peak Bone Mass

    Connie Weaver, Rick Lewis, and Emma Liang

    38 Vitamin D Metabolism in Pregnancy and Lactation

    Bonny Specker, Natalie W. Thiex, and Heidi J. Kalkwarf

    39 Vitamin D: Relevance in Reproductive Biology and Pathophysiological Implications in Reproductive Dysfunction

    Hugh S. Taylor and Lubna Pal

    40 Vitamin D and the Renin-Angiotensin System

    Yan Chun Li

    41 Parathyroid Hormone, Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein and Calcitonin

    John J. Wysolmerski and Elizabeth Holt

    42 FGF23/Klotho New Regulators of Vitamin D Metabolism

    L. Darryl Quarles and Valentin David

    43 The Role of the Vitamin D Receptor in Bile Acid Homeostasis

    David J. Mangelsdorf, Daniel R. Schmidt, Steven A. Kliewer

    44 Vitamin D and Fat

    Clifford J. Rosen and Francisco J. A. de Paula

    45 Extra-renal 1a-hydroxylase

    Martin Hewison and John S. Adams

    Section VI: Diagnosis and Management

    46 Approach to the Patient

    Michael P. Whyte

    47 Detection of Vitamin D and Its Major Metabolites

    Bruce W. Hollis

    48 Bone Histomorphometry

    Juliet E. Compston and Linda Skingle

    49 Radiology

    Judith E. Adams


    Sharmila Majumdar, Andrew J. Burghardt, and Roland Krug

    51 The Role of Vitamin D in Orthopaedic Surgery

    Joseph M. Lane, Aasis Unnanuntana, and Brian J. Rebolledo

    Section VII: Nutrition, Sunlight, Genetics and Vitamin D Deficiency

    52 Worldwide vitamin D status

    Paul Lips and Natasja van Schoor

    53 Sunlight, Vitamin D and Prostate Cancer Epidemiology

    Gary G. Schwartz

    54 Nutrition and lifestyle effects on vitamin D status

    Susan J. Whiting and Mona S. Calvo

    55 Bone Loss, Vitamin D and Bariatric Surgery: Nutrition, Obesity and Bariatric Surgery

    Lenore Arab and Ian Yip

    56 Genes and Risk of Disease

    André G. Uitterlinden

    57 The Pharmacology of Vitamin D

    Reinhold Vieth

    58 How to Define Optimal Vitamin D Status?

    Roger Bouillon

    Section VIII: Disorders

    59 The Hypocalcemic Disorders: Differential Diagnosis and Therapeutic Use of Vitamin D

    Thomas O. Carpenter and Karl L. Insogna

    60 Vitamin D Deficiency and Nutritional Rickets in Children

    John M. Pettifor

    61 Vitamin D and Osteoporosis

    Peter R. Ebeling and John A. Eisman

    62 Relevance of Vitamin D Deficiency in Adult Fracture and Fall Prevention

    Heike Bischoff-Ferrari and Bess Dawson-Hughes

    63 Clinical Disorders of Phosphate Homeostasis

    Marc K. Drezner and Karen E. Hansen

    64 Pseudo-vitamin D Deficiency

    Francis H. Glorieux, Thomas Edouard, and René St-Arnaud

    65 Hereditary 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D Resistant Rickets

    Peter J. Malloy, David Feldman, and Dov Tiosano

    66 Glucocorticoids and Vitamin D

    Philip Sambrook

    67 Drug and Hormone Effects on Vitamin D Metabolism

    Sol Epstein and Barrie M. Weinstein

    68 Vitamin D and Organ Transplantation

    Elizabeth Shane and Emily M. Stein


    Daniel Bikle


    ADRIANA S. DUSSO and Eduardo Slatopolsky

    71 Idiopathic Hypercalciuria and Nephrolithiasis

    Murray J. Favus and Fredric L. Coe

    72 Hypercalcemia Due to Vitamin D Toxicity

    John P. Bilezikian, Natalie E. Cusano, and Susan Thys-Jacobs

    73 Vitamin D: Cardiovascular Effects and Vascular Calcification

    Dwight A. Towler

    Section IX: Analogs

    74 New Analogs

    Hector DeLuca and Lori A. Plum

    75 Mechanisms for the Selective Actions of Vitamin D Analogs

    Alex J. Brown


    Annemieke Verstuyf, Pierre De Clercq, Roger Bouillon, Lieve Verlinden, Guy Eelen, and Maurits Vandewalle

    77 Analogs and Fx Prevention

    Noboru Kubodera and Fumiaki Takahashi

    78 Non-Secosteroidal Ligands and Modulators

    Keith R. Stayrook, Yanfei L. Ma, Matthew W. Carson, and Jeffrey A. Dodge

    79 The bile acid derivatives lithocholic acid acetate and lithocholic acid propionate are functionally selective vitamin D receptor ligands

    Makoto Makishima and Sachiko Yamada

    80 CYP24A1 Regulation in Health and Disease

    Martin Petkovich, Tina Epps, and Christian Helvig

    81 Calcitriol and Analogs in the Treatment of Chronic Kidney Disease

    Ravi Thadhani and Ishir Bhan

    Section X: Cancer

    82 The Epidemiology of Vitamin D and Cancer Risk

    Edward Giovannucci

    83 Vitamin D: Cancer and Differentiation

    Johannes P. T. M. van Leeuwen, Alberto Munoz, Marjolein van Driel, and David Feldman

    84 Vitamin D Effects on Differentiation and Cell Cycle

    George P. Studzinski, Elzbieta Gocek, and Michael Danilenko

    85 Vitamin D Actions in Mammary Gland and Breast Cancer

    Joellen Welsh

    86 Vitamin D and Prostate Cancer

    David Feldman and Aruna V. Krishnan


    Heide S. Cross

    88 Hematological Malignancy

    H. Phillip Koeffler and Ryoko Okamoto

    89 Vitamin D and Skin Cancer

    Jean Y. Tang and Ervin H. Epstein

    90 The Anti-Tumor Effects of Vitamin D in Other Cancers

    Donald Trump and Candace Johnson

    Section XI: Immunity, Inflammation, and Disease

    91 Vitamin D and Innate Immunity

    John H. White

    92 Control of Adaptive Immunity by Vitamin D Receptor Agonists

    Luciano Adorini

    93 The role of vitamin D in innate immunity: Antimicrobial Activity, Oxidative Stress and Barrier Function

    Philip T. Liu

    94 Vitamin D and Diabetes

    Chantal Mathieu, Conny Gysemans, and Hannelie Korf

    95 Vitamin D and Multiple Sclerosis

    Colleen E. Hayes, Faye E. Nashold, Justin A. Spanier, Corwin D. Nelson, and Christopher G. Mayne

    96 Vitamin D and Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Margherita Cantorna and Danny Bruce

    97 Psoriasis and other Skin Diseases

    Jörg Reichrath and Michael F. Holick

    Section XII: Therapeutic Applications and New Advances

    98 The Role of Vitamin D in Type 2 Diabetes and Hypertension

    Bess Dawson-Hughes and Anastassios G. Pittas

    99 Vitamin D Receptor Agonists in the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    Mario Maggi, Annamaria Morelli, and Luciano Adorini

    100 Sunlight protection by Vitamin D Compounds

    Rebecca S. Mason, Katie M. Dixon, Vanessa Sequiera, and Clare Gordon-Thomas

    101 The Role of Vitamin D in Osteoarthritis and Rheumatic Disease

    Timothy M. McAlindon and M. Kyla Shea

    102 Vitamin D and cardiovascular Disease

    Harald Dobnig and Harald Sourij

    103 Vitamin D, Childhood Wheezing, Asthma, and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Carlos A. Camargo, Jonathan Mansbach, and Adit Ginde

    104 Vitamin D and Skeletal Muscle Function

    Robert U. Simpson and Lisa Ceglia

    105 VITAL

    JoAnn E. Manson


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