Trease and Evans

Trease and Evans' Pharmacognosy

This encyclopedic reference work on pharmacognosy covers the study of those natural substances, principally plants, that find a use in medicine. Its popularity and longevity stem from the book's balance between classical (crude and powdered drugs' characterization and examination) and modern (phytochemistry and pharmacology) aspects of this branch of science, as well as the editor's recognition in recent years of the growing importance of complementary medicines, including herbal, homeopathic and aromatherapy.

Pharmacy students
Reference work for pharmaceutical companies
Herbal medicine practitioners


Published: May 2009

Imprint: Saunders

ISBN: 978-0-7020-2934-9


  • Part 1: Introduction

    Plants in medicine: the origins of pharmacognosy
    The scope and practice of pharmacognosy
    Plant nomenclature and taxonomy

    Part 2: The plant and animal kingdoms as sources of drugs

    Biological and geographical sources of drugs
    A taxonomic approach to the study of medicinal plants and animal-derived drugs
    Pharmacological activities of natural products
    Synergy and other interactions in phytomedicines
    Traditional plant medicines as a source of new drugs
    Discovering new lead compounds in pharmaceutical research and development

    Part 3: Principles related to the commercial production, quality and standardization of natural products

    Commerce in crude drugs
    Production of crude drugs
    Plant growth regulators
    Plant cell and tissue culture; biological conversions; clonal propagation
    Phytochemical variation within a species
    Deterioration of stored drugs
    Quality control

    Part 4: Phytochemistry

    General methods associated with the phytochemical investigation of herbal products
    Basic metabolic pathways and the origin of secondary metabolites

    Part 5: Pharmacopoeial and related drugs of biological origin

    Hydrocarbons and derivatives
    Phenols and phenolic glycosides
    Volatile oils and resins
    Saponins, cardioactive drugs and other steroids
    Miscellaneous isoprenoids
    Cyanogenetic glycosides, glucoinolate compounds and miscellaneous glycosides
    The search for naturally-derived anticancer agents
    Antiprotozoal natural products
    An overview of drugs with antihepatotoxic and oral hypoglycaemic activities
    Antibacterial and antiviral drugs
    Vitamins and hormones
    The plant nutraceuticals
    Colouring and flavouring agents
    Miscellaneous products

    Part 6: Plants in complementary and traditional systems of medicine

    Herbal medicine in Britain and Europe: regulation and practice
    Asian medicine
    Chinese herbs in the West
    Plants in African traditional medicine - some perspectives

    Part 7: Nonmedicinal toxic plants and pesticides
    Hallucinogenic, allergenic, teratogenic and other toxic plants

    Pesticides of natural origins

    Part 8: Morphological and microscopical examination of drugs

    Plant description, morphology and anatomy
    Cell differentiation and ergastic cell contents
    Techniques in microscopy