Thermal Properties and Temperature-Related Behavior of Rock/Fluid SystemsBy
- W.H. Somerton, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA
This book brings together for the first time the results of research on the thermal properties and temperature-related behavior of rocks with their contained fluids, under subsurface environmental conditions. These data are of increasing importance with increased application of underground processes involving high temperature and, in some cases, low temperature environments. Some of the important processes are described in which thermal data are needed. Chapters deal with thermal properties of rocks, including heat capacities, thermal conductivities and thermal diffusivities under conditions simulating subsurface environments. Discussion about the difficulty in measuring thermal properties of rock/fluid systems is included along with newly-developed models for predicting thermal properties from more-easily measured properties. The effects of thermal reactions in rocks, differential thermal expansion, and thermal alterations are discussed in separate chapters. The effects of temperature on rock properties, as distinct from the irreversible effects of heating, are reviewed. Lastly the book deals with wellbore applications of thermal and high-temperature behavior of rocks and methods of deducing thermal properties from geophysical logs run in boreholes. Appendices include thermal units conversion factors and thermal properties of some typical reservoir rocks and fluids.
Developments in Petroleum Science
Published: March 1992
Students and professionals should find this to be an excellent reference tool.
American Association of Petroleum Geologists
The material is well presented and illustrated.
Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research
W.H. Somerton has provided the community of researchers and practitioners of heat transfer in rock with an information-packed and very welcome resource. Researchers in all these fields have undoubtedly encountered the paucity of thermal property data available, and will welcome this book as a source of both hard numbers and experimental procedures. Thermal Properties and Temperature-Related Behavior of Rock/Fluid Systems is a fine addition to the bookshelf of anyone working on thermal analysis of geological systems, particularly fluid-bearing, sedimentary rocks.
Pure and Applied Geophysics
- I. Thermal Processes and Terms. Applications requiring thermal data. Definition of terms. II. Heat Capacities of Rocks. Experimental measurements. Calculated heat capacities. Heat capacities of fluid saturated rocks. Generalized calculations of heat capacities. Heat capacity of shales. III. Thermal Reactions in Rocks. Experimental methods. Results of measurements. IV. Thermal Expansion of Rocks. Thermal expansion of dry sandstones. Thermal expansion of fluid saturated rocks under stress. Conclusions on thermal expansion. V. Thermal Conductivities of Rock/Fluid Systems. Methods of measuring thermal conductivities. Effects of rock/fluid properties on thermal conductivity. Effects of temperature on thermal conductivity. Effects of stress on thermal conductivity. Summary. VI. Thermal Conductivity Models. Mixing law models. Empirical models. Theoretical models. Summary. VII. Thermal Diffusivities of Rocks. Experimental methods of measurement. Measured diffusivities of rocks. Calculated thermal diffusivities of rocks. VIII. Heat Transfer with Flowing Fluids. Natural convection in porous media. Fluid phase changes in porous media (VCC effect). Convective heat transfer with flowing fluids. IX. Thermal Alterations of Rocks. High temperature alterations. Role of fluxing agents in high temperature alterations. Reduction in fracture pressures by intensive borehole heating. Effects of steaming on rock properties. X. Effects of Temperature on Rock Properties. Bulk and pore compressibilities. Elastic wave velocities. Permeability. Formation resistivity factor. Summary and conclusions. XI. Low Temperature Behavior of Rock/Fluid Systems. P- and S-wave velocities and elastic moduli. Electrical properties. Thermal conductivity. Other low-temperature effects. XII. Wellbore Applications. Thermal data from well logs. Thermal gradients in wells. Heat losses in wells due to VCC effect. Summary and conclusions. Appendix A. Thermal Units Conversion Factors. Appendix B. Thermal Properties Data for Various Rocks. Appendix C. Thermal Properties of Subsurface Reservoir Fluids. References. Author Index. Subject Index.