The Refinery of the FutureBy
- James Speight
As feedstocks to refineries change, there must be an accompanying change in refinery technology. This means a movement from conventional means of refining heavy feedstocks using (typically) coking technologies to more innovative processes that will coax the last drips of liquid fuels from the feedstock.
This book presents the evolution of refinery processes during the last century and as well as the means by which refinery processes will evolve during the next three-to-five decades. Chapters contain material relevant to (1) comparisons of current feedstocks with heavy oil and bio-feedstocks; (2) evolution of refineries since the 1950s, (3) properties and refinability of heavy oil and bio-feedstocks, (4) thermal processes vs. hydroprocesses, and (5) evolution of products to match the environmental market.
Process innovations that have influenced refinery processing over the past three decades are presented, as well as the relevant patents that have the potential for incorporation into future refineries.
Comparison of current feedstocks with heavy oil and bio-feedstocks.
Evolution of refineries over the past three decades.
Properties and refinability of heavy oil and bio-feedstocks.
Thermal processes vs. Hydroprocesses.
Evolution of products to match the environmental market.
Chemical and Process Engineers; Oil & Gas community; Business planners; government and public policy community.
Hardbound, 416 Pages
Published: December 2010
Imprint: William Andrew
- PREFACECHAPTER 1: FEEDSTOCK COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES1.0 Occurrence and Reserves1.1 Conventional Petroleum1.2 Heavy Oil1.3 Tar Sand Bitumen1.4 Bio-feedstocks2.0 Recovery and Properties3.0. Ultimate (Elemental) Composition4.0 Chemical Composition5.0 Fractional Composition6.0 ReferencesCHAPTER 2: INTRODUCTION TO REFINING PROCESSES1.0 Dewatering and Desalting2.0 Distillation3.0 Thermal Methods4.0 Catalytic Methods5.0 Hydroprocesses6.0 Reforming7.0 Isomerization, Alkylation, and Polymerization Processes9.0 ReferencesCHAPTER 3: REFINING CHEMISTRY1.0 Cracking2.0 Hydrogenation3.0 Isomerization, Alkylation, and Polymerization4.0 Instability and Incompatibility5.0 ReferencesCHAPTER 4: DISTILLATION1.0 Current Processes and Equipment3.1 Atmospheric Distillation3.2 Vacuum Distillation2.0 Other Processes3.0 Process Innovations4.0 Relevant Patents5.0 ReferencesCHAPTER 5: THERMAL CRACKING1.0 Commercial Processes1.1 Visbreaking1.2 Coking Processes2.0 Process Options for Heavy Feedstocks3.0 Process Innovations4.0 Relevant Patents5.0 ReferencesCHAPTER 6: CATALYTIC CRACKING1.0 Commercial Processes and Catalysts1.1 Fixed-Bed Processes1.2 Fluid-Bed Processes1.3 Moving-Bed Processes2.0 Process Options for Heavy Feedstocks3.0 Process Parameters4.0 Process Innovations5.0 Relevant Patents6.0 ReferencesCHAPTER 7: DEASPHALTING PROCESSES1.0 Commercial Processes2.0 Process Options for Heavy Feedstocks3.0 Process Innovations4.0 Relevant Patents5.0 ReferencesCHAPTER 8: HYDROTREATING AND DESULFURIZATION1.0 Commercial Processes and Catalysts2.0 Process Options for Heavy Feedstocks5.0 Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Polishing6.0 Process Innovations7.0 Relevant Patents8.0 ReferencesCHAPTER 9: HYDROCRACKING1.0 Commercial Processes and Catalysts2.0 Process Design3.0 Process Options for Heavy Feedstocks4.0 Process Innovations5.0 Relevant Patents6.0 ReferencesCHAPTER 10: REFINERY OF THE FUTURE1.0 Feedstocks1.1 Petroleum, Heavy Oil, and Bitumen1.2 Liquids from Coal and Oil Shale1.3 Bio-liquids2.0 Refinery Configuration3.0 Products and Product Quality4.0 Relevant Patents5.0 ReferencesCONVERSION FACTORSGLOSSARYINDEX