Research Methodology in the Medical and Biological Sciences book cover

Research Methodology in the Medical and Biological Sciences

Providing easy-to-access information, this unique sourcebook covers the wide range of topics that a researcher must be familiar with in order to become a successful experimental scientist. Perfect for aspiring as well as practicing professionals in the medical and biological sciences it discusses a broad range of topics that are common, yet not traditionally considered part of formal curricula. The information presented also facilitates communication across conventional disciplinary boundaries, in line with the increasingly multidisciplinary nature of modern research projects.

Audience
Postgraduate researchers in basic life science and clinical research, postdocs, researchers and clinical researchers.

Paperback, 512 Pages

Published: September 2007

Imprint: Academic Press

ISBN: 978-0-12-373874-5

Contents


  • Preface

    Contributors

    List of Abbreviations and Symbols

    Chapter 1 Philosophy of Science

    1.1 Philosophy of the Natural Sciences

    1.2 Philosophy of The Social Sciences

    Chapter 2 Ethics and Scientific Conduct

    2.1 A Brief Introduction to Ethics

    2.2 Scientific Conduct and Misconduct

    2.3 Misconduct and Why It Occurs

    2.4 Fabrication and Other Forms of Misconduct Affecting the Truth Claims of Scientific Findings

    2.5 Authorship Issues

    2.6 Salami, Imalas and Duplicate Publication

    2.7 The Investigation and Punishment of Scientific Misconduct

    Appendix 1

    Chapter 3 Ethics in Human and Animal Studies

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Basic Principles of Human Research Ethics

    3.3 International Regulation

    3.4 The Ethics of Animal Research

    Appendix 1 World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects

    Appendix 2 Oviedo Convention (Council of Europe, European Treaty Series 164)

    Appendix 3 Oviedo Convention - Additional Protocol Concerning Biomedical Research, Chapter I-IX (Council of Europe, European Treaty Series 195)

    Chapter 4 Research Methodology: Strategies, Planning and Analysis

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Your Scientific Problem

    4.3 More On Scientific Problems

    4.4 Literature, Methods and Techniques

    4.5 Research Conditions

    4.6 Data Types

    4.7 Techniques

    4.8 Repeatability, Reproducibility and Reliability

    4.9 Validity, Effect Measure and Choice of Statistical Test

    4.10 Experimental Protocol

    4.11 Experimental Routine

    Chapter 5 Literature Search and Personal Reference Databases

    5.1 Information Literacy

    5.2 Systematic Literature Search

    5.3 How to Formulate a Query: PICO

    5.4 Search Technique

    5.5 Methodology Filters

    5.6 Quality: Critical Appraisal

    5.7 Impact Factor

    5.8 Principal Bibliographic Databases

    5.9 Staying Up to Date

    5.10 Medical and Scientific Internet Search Engines

    5.11 Personal Reference Databases

    Chapter 6 Methods in Molecular Biology

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Recombinant DNA Technology

    6.3 DNA and RNA: Isolation, Identification, Synthesis and Analysis

    6.4 Practical Applications of DNA/RNA Technology

    6.5 Protein Analyses

    6.6 Bioinformatics

    Chapter 7 Strategies and Methods of Basic Medical Research

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Long-Term Goals and Specific Aims

    7.3 Background and Significance

    7.4 Experimental Strategies and Methods

    7.5 Pilot Studies

    7.6 Rules for Basic Medical Research Projects

    Chapter 8 Clinical Research

    8.1 Controlled Clinical Trials

    8.2 Publication Bias

    8.3 Estimating Sample Size

    8.4 ‘Non-Inferiority’ Studies

    8.5 Generalization

    Chapter 9 Epidemiology: Concepts and Methods

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Definitions

    9.3 The Role of Epidemiology

    9.4 Population and Sample

    9.5 Measures of Disease Occurrence, Association, Risk and Implications

    9.6 Vital Statistics

    9.7 Study Designs of Epidemiological Studies

    9.8 Effect Measures in Epidemiological Studies

    9.9 Experimental Studies and Randomized Control Trials

    9.10 Measurement Error and Sources of Error

    9.11 Tests and Validity

    9.12 Causes of Disease

    9.13 Association Versus Causality

    Chapter 10 Qualitative Research

    10.1 Qualitative Versus Quantitative Research

    10.2 Using Qualitative Research

    10.3 What Qualitative Research Cannot be Used for

    10.4 Samples in Qualitative Studies

    10.5 Reliability and Validity

    10.6 Ethical Challenges in Qualitative Research

    10.7 Qualitative Data Collection

    10.8 Triangulation

    10.9 Analyses of Qualitative Data

    10.10 Releasing Qualitative Data

    Chapter 11 Statistical Issues

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Effect Measure, Hypothesis Testing and Confidence Interval

    11.3 Bernoulli Trial

    11.4 Comparing Two Proportions

    11.5 Measures of Association in 2 x 2 Tables

    11.6 Normal Distribution

    11.7 Comparison of Means

    11.8 Non-Parametric Methods

    11.9 Regression Analysis

    Chapter 12 Evidence-Based Practice and Critical Appraisal of Systematic Reviews

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Systematic Reviews

    12.3 Critical Appraisal of a Systematic Review: One Example

    12.4 Summary

    Chapter 13 Scientific Communication

    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 The Scientific Paper

    13.3 Posters

    Chapter 14 Successful Lecturing

    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Preparing the Lecture

    14.3 Lecture Content and Form

    14.4 Manuscript

    14.5 Delivering a Lecture

    Chapter 15 Guide to Grant Applications

    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 Getting Started

    15.3 The Postdoctoral Fellow and Junior Scientist

    15.4 What Goes into a Successful Grant Application?

    15.5 The Investigator-Initiated Research Grant

    15.6 Multiproject Grants

    15.7 International Research Collaborations

    15.8 The European Union's Seventh Framework Program

    15.9 Summary and Perspective

    Index

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