Present Status and Future TrendsBy
- C.D. Jonah, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S.Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4831, USA
- B.S.M. Rao, University of Pune, Pune 411 007, India
During the twentieth century, radiation chemistry emerged as a multi-faceted field encompassing all areas of science. Radiation chemical techniques are becoming increasingly popular and are being routinely used not only by chemists but also by biologists, polymer scientists, etc.
"Radiation Chemistry: Present Status and Future Trends" presents an overall view of the different aspects of the subject. The chapters review the current status of the field and present the future opportunities in utilizing radiation chemical techniques. This will be of interest to chemists in general and in particular to radiation chemists, chemical kineticists, photochemists, physical-organic chemists and spectroscopists.
In view of the diverse nature of the field, the book is a multi-authored effort by several experts in their particular areas of research. Six main areas, both basic and applied, were identified and the book is organized around them. The topics were selected in terms of their relative importance and the contribution of radiation chemistry to the general areas of chemistry, biology and physics. The topics covered are as diverse as gas phase radiation chemistry, the use of radiation chemical techniques, the treatment of water pollutants, the chemical basis of radiation biology, and muonium chemistry. The book also contains an update of the next generation electron accelerators.
For young scientists entering this field of research and professionals requiring a reference work on radiation science.
Studies in Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
Published: August 2001
- Short Contents also available.
Chapter headings. Radiation chemistry: from the early days to the next millennium. Introduction, Theory, Instrumentation, Homogeneous systems, Organized assemblies and heterogeneous systems, Applications, Conclusions, References. Accelerators for ultrafast phenomena. Introduction, Acceleration methods for ultrafast studies, Beam transport and pulse compression techniques, Pulse width determination, Experimental detection methods, Conclusion, References.Ion-beam radiation chemistry. Introduction, Energy deposition processes, Experimental techniques, Water and aqueous solutions, Organic liquids, Polymeric systems, References.Radiation chemistry under magnetic fields - Spin coherence effects. Introduction, Singlet-correlated radical ion pairs in irradiated alkanes, Stationary effects, mary-spectroscopy, Time-resolved effects, quantum beats, Conclusion, References.Muonium chemistry. Introduction, The muon, and end-of-track probe, Muonium reactions and kinetic isotope effects, Solvation and diffusion of hydrogen isotopes in water, Muonium-substituted free radicals, Potential and future prospects, References.Fundamental processes in gas-phase radiation chemistry. Introduction, The physical stage, The physico-chemical stage, Electron thermalization, The chemical stage, Detection techniques, Ion-ion recombination, XE2+/SF6- ionic recombination, XE2+/BR- ionic recombination, Absolute excitation and emission yields, Applications of gas phase radiation chemistry, References.High temperature water radiolysis. Introduction, Scheme for the radiolysis of water, Measurement of g-values, Measurement of rate constants of spur reactions, Modelling of spur and track processes up to 300°C, Non-linear Arrhenius behaviour of rate constants, Concluding remarks, References.Radiation chemistry of concentrated inorganic aqueous solutions. Direct & indirect action of radiation in aqueous solutions, Nitric acid and nitrate solutions, Sulfuric acid and sulfate solutions, Phosphoric acid and phosphate solutions, Perchloric acid and perchlorate solutions, Other solutions, References.Radiation chemistry of organic liquids: saturated hydrocarbons. Introduction, Solvent holes with anomalously high mobility, Single-pair and multiple-pair spurs, Generation of solvent and solute excited states, Concluding remarks, References.Radiation chemistry of organic halides in aqueous solutions. Introduction, Formation of transient species, Oxidation potential of solute radical cations, Conclusions, References.Radiation chemistry of fullerenes. Introduction, , , ,  and  fullerenes, Monofunctionalized fullerene derivatives, Multiply functionalized fullerene derivatives, Concluding remarks, References.Radiation chemistry of quinones. Introduction, Formation of semiquinones in aqueous solutions, Characteristics of semiquinones, Oxidation of quinones, Triplet excited states, Current scope and future prospects, References.Redox chemistry and energetics of radical cations of substituted benzenes. Introduction, Thermochemistry, Experimental techniques, Redox properties, Acidity properties, Reactive side-chains, Concluding remarks, References.Heteroatom-centered free radicals: some selected contributions by radiation chemistry. Introduction, Radicals and radical ions from n-organic compounds, S-centered radicals and radical anions, Sulfur- & other heteroatom-centered radical cations, Odd-electron bonds, Concluding remarks and outlook, References.Zeolite catalysis studies by radiation chemical methods. Introduction, Spin labeling by ionization, Radiolysis/epr method, Reactions of acyclic olefins on zsm5, Shape selectivity: zsm5 and mordenite, H/D exchange, Conclusion, References.Radiation chemistry of nanocolloids and clusters. Introduction, Principles, Metal cluster nucleation and growth, Transient metal cluster reactivity, Synthesis of monometallic nanoclusters, Bimetallic clusters, Catalytic properties of metal clusters, Semiconductor cluster nucleation and reactivity, Future trends, References.Radiation chemical studies of porphyrins and metalloporphyrins. Introduction, Reduction of the porphyrin ligand, Oxidation of the porphyrin ligand, Reduction of the metal center, Oxidation of the metal center, Organometallic chemistry of porphyrins, Concluding remarks, References.Carbohydrates. Introduction, Aqueous solutions, Radiolysis in the solid state, References.Radiation chemistry of the nucleobases. Introduction, Pyrimidines, Purines, Nucleobase radical cations, References.Radiation chemistry of proteins. Radiolysis of proteins in the solid state, Reactions of water primary radicals, Insight into mechanisms: reactions of other free radicals, Tthiyl and disulfide free radicals in peptides and proteins, Long range intramolecular electron transfer in proteins, Biological consequences, Conclusion, References.Radiation-induced damage in DNA. Introduction, Structure of DNA, Cellular DNA damage induced by ionising radiation, Early processes in radiation-induced DNA damage, Effect of chemical modifiers of DNA damage, Radiation-induced charge transfer in DNA, Clustered DNA damage, References.Free radical mechanisms in anti-cancer drug research. Introduction, Redox characteristics of drugs and radicals, Redox characteristics of tumours compared to normal tissues, Drugs enhancing cellular radiosensitivity, Drugs selectively toxic towards hypoxic cells, Drugs activated by oxidative reactions, Conclusions, References.The chemistry behind the application of ionizing radiation in water-pollution abatement. Introduction, Some examples, Cost-benefit considerations, References.High-performance polymeric materials for separation and reaction, prepared by radiation-induced graft polymerization. Radiation-induced graft polymerization has provided commercial products, Porous hollow-fiber membranes enhance convective mass transport, Nonwoven fabrics enable large-scale uranium recovery from water, Applications promote new characterization of graft chains, References.Radiation pasteurization and sterilization of foodIntroduction, Fundamental aspects, Major constituents, Aqueous phase, Wholesomeness implications, Quality implications, Conclusion, References, Index.