Principles of Sequence StratigraphyBy
- Octavian Catuneanu, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada
Principles of Sequence Stratigraphy provides an in-depth coverage and impartial assessment of all current ideas and models in the field of sequence stratigraphy. Even though widely popular among all groups interested in the analysis of sedimentary basin fills, both in academia and in the industry, sequence stratigraphy is yet a difficult undertaking due to an overwhelming jargon and the persistence of conflicting approaches as to how the sequence stratigraphic method should be applied to the rock record. This textbook examines the relationship between such conflicting approaches from the perspective of a unifying platform, demonstrating that sufficient common ground exists to eliminate terminology barriers and to facilitate communication between all practitioners of sequence stratigraphy.
This work is not only a review of past and current literature, but also includes key original viewpoints and is illustrated with new graphic material and numerous field examples of outcrop, core, well log and 3D seismic data in full colour. The book is addressed to anyone interested in understanding and applying the method of sequence stratigraphic analysis, from students to geologists, geophysicists and reservoir engineers. Sequence stratigraphy remains the most recent paradigm in the broad field of sedimentary geology, with tremendous potential to deciphering the record of global change and to improving the success of economic exploration.
Researchers and professionals Upper graduate and graduate students, as well as upper graduate and graduate students in stratigraphy, sedimentology, petroleum peology and engineering, economic geology, coal geology, seismic exploration, precambrian geology, and mining geology and engineering
Hardbound, 386 Pages
"This volume has the best explanation and exploration of sequence stratigraphy yet published. It stands above earlier such books not only because of its outstanding graphics and clear prose, but also because it approaches the topic philosophically, emphasizing the cognitive models as much as the geological....All libraries with geological science programs should have this book, as should all sedimentologists and stratigraphers. Summing Up: Essential. Upper-division undergraduates through professionals." -CHOICE "Outstanding conceptual diagrams and illustrations including color photos of geologic outcrops, well cuttings, cores, well logs, and 3D seismic data are the backbone of this book. I firmly believe that this will be a bestseller in the Earth sciences. I really enjoyed reading this extraordinarily comprehensive text." --THE LEADING EDGE, The Society of Exploration Geophysicists, May 2007 "Principles of Sequence Stratigraphy" is an up-to-date and comprehensive textbook covering both theory and practice of sequence stratigraphy." - Journal of Sedimentary Research, August 2006 "Octavian Catuneanu has written a balanced, well illustrated and up-to-date overview of the various approaches to sequence stratigraphy." - Journal of Sedimentary Research, August 2006
- 1. IntroductionSEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY-AN OVERVIEW Sequence Stratigraphy in the Context of Interdisciplinary Research Sequence Stratigraphy-A Revolution in Sedimentary Geology HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY Early Developments Sequence Stratigraphy Era-Eustatic vs. Tectonic Controls on Sedimentation Sequence Models SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHIC APPROACH Terminology Concept of Scale Sequence Stratigraphy vs. Lithostratigraphy and Allostratigraphy 2. Methods of Sequence Stratigraphic AnalysisINTRODUCTION FACIES ANALYSIS: OUTCROPS, CORE, AND MODERN ANALOGUES Concepts of Depositional System, Facies, and Facies Models Classification of Depositional Environments Walther's Law Sedimentary Petrography Paleocurrent Directions Pedology Ichnology General Principles Ichnofacies Classification Softground-related Ichnofacies Substrate-controlled Ichnofacies Discussion WELL LOGS Introduction Well Logs: Geological Uncertainties Constraining Well-log Interpretations SEISMIC DATA Introduction Physical Attributes of Seismic Data Workflow of Seismic Data Analysis Reconnaissance Studies Interval Attribute Maps Horizon Attribute Maps 3D Perspective Visualization AGE DETERMINATION TECHNIQUES WORKFLOW OF SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHIC ANALYSIS Step 1-Tectonic Setting (Type of Sedimentary Basin) Step 2--Paleodepositional Environments Step 3--Sequence Stratigraphic Framework Stratal Terminations Stratigraphic Surfaces Systems Tracts and Sequences 3. Accommodation and Shoreline ShiftsINTRODUCTION ALLOGENIC CONTROLS ON SEDIMENTATION Significance of Allogenic Controls Signatures of Allogenic Controls Relative Importance of Allogenic Controls SEDIMENT SUPPLY AND ENERGY FLUX Sediment Supply Sediment Supply vs. Environmental Energy Flux SEDIMENT ACCOMMODATION Definitions-Accommodation, Base Level, and Fluvial Graded Profiles Proxies for Base Level and Accommodation Changes in Accommodation SHORELINE TRAJECTORIES Definitions Transgressions Forced Regressions Normal Regressions 4. Stratigraphic SurfacesINTRODUCTION TYPES OF STRATAL TERMINATIONS SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHIC SURFACES Subaerial Unconformity Correlative Conformity Basal Surface of Forced Regression Regressive Surface of Marine Erosion Maximum Regressive Surface Maximum Flooding Surface Transgressive Ravinement Surfaces Wave-Ravinement Surface Tidal-Ravinement Surface WITHIN-TREND FACIES CONTACTS Within-trend Normal Regressive SurfaceWithin-trend Forced Regressive Surface Within-trend Flooding Surface 5. Systems TractsINTRODUCTION HIGHSTAND SYSTEMS TRACTDefinition and Stacking Patterns Economic Potential Petroleum Plays Coal Resources Placer Deposits FALLING-STAGE SYSTEMS TRACT Definition and Stacking Patterns Economic Potential Petroleum PlaysCoal Resources Placer Deposits LOWSTAND SYSTEMS TRACT Definition and Stacking PatternsEconomic Potential Petroleum Plays Coal Resources Placer Deposits TRANSGRESSIVE SYSTEMS TRACT Definition and Stacking Patterns Economic Potential Petroleum Plays Coal Resources Placer Deposits REGRESSIVE SYSTEMS TRACT Definition and Stacking Patterns Economic Potential LOW- AND HIGH-ACCOMMODATION SYSTEMS TRACTS Definition and Stacking Patterns Low-Accommodation Systems Tract High-Accommodation Systems Tract Discussion Economic Potential Petroleum Plays Coal Resources Placer Deposits 6. Sequence ModelsINTRODUCTION TYPES OF STRATIGRAPHIC SEQUENCESDepositional Sequence Genetic Stratigraphic Sequence Transgressive-Regressive (T-R) Sequence Parasequences SEQUENCES IN FLUVIAL SYSTEMS Introduction Fluvial Cyclicity Controlled by Base-level Changes Fluvial Cyclicity Independent of Base-level Changes Climatic Cycles Tectonic CyclesLow- vs. High-Accommodation Settings SEQUENCES IN COASTAL TO SHALLOW-WATER CLASTIC SYSTEMS Introduction Physical Processes Sediment Supply and Transport Mechanisms Zonation of the Coastal - Shallow-marine Profile Sediment Budget: Fairweather vs. Storm Conditions Cyclicity of Coastal to Shallow-water Systems in Relation to Shoreline Shifts Normal Regressive Settings Forced Regressive Settings Transgressive Settings Summary SEQUENCES IN DEEP-WATER CLASTIC SYSTEMS Introduction Physical Processes Progradation of Shelf-edge Deltas Gravity Flows Depositional Elements Submarine-canyon Fills Turbidity-flow Channel Fills Turbidity-flow Levees and Overbank Sediment Waves Turbidity-flow Splay Complexes Mudflow (Cohesive Debris Flow) Macroforms Cyclicity of Deep-water Systems in Relation to Shoreline Shifts Highstand Normal Regressions Early Forced Regressions Late Forced Regressions Lowstand Normal Regressions Early Transgressions Late Transgressions Summary SEQUENCES IN CARBONATE SYSTEMS Introduction The Carbonate Sequence Stratigraphic Model Drowning Unconformities Highstand Systems Tracts Falling-stage-Lowstand Systems Tracts Transgressive Systems Tracts Discussion: Sequence Boundaries in Carbonate Successions 7. Time Attributes of Stratigraphic SurfacesINTRODUCTION REFERENCE CURVE FOR THE DEFINITION OF STRATIGRAPHIC SURFACES SHORELINE SHIFTS, GRADING, AND BATHYMETRY Controls on Sediment Grading and Water-depth Changes Discussion METHODS OF DEFINITION OF STRATIGRAPHIC SURFACES Introduction Correlative Conformities Onset-of-fall Correlative Conformity End-of-fall Correlative Conformity Maximum Regressive and Maximum Flooding Surfaces Definition Two-dimensional Model Model Results Strike Variability Discussion SUMMARY: TIME ATTRIBUTES OF STRATIGRAPHIC SURFACES Subaerial Unconformity Correlative Conformity Basal Surface of Forced Regression Regressive Surface of Marine Erosion Maximum Regressive Surface Maximum Flooding Surface Transgressive Ravinement Surfaces Within-trend Facies Contacts Conclusions 8. Hierarchy of Sequences and Sequence BoundariesINTRODUCTION HIERARCHY SYSTEM BASED ON CYCLE DURATION (BOUNDARY FREQUENCY) HIERARCHY SYSTEM BASED ON THE MAGNITUDE OF BASE-LEVEL CHANGES DISCUSSION 9. Discussion and ConclusionsFUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES Scope and Applications The Importance of Shoreline Shifts Theory vs. Reality in Sequence Stratigraphy The Importance of the Tectonic Setting Uses and Abuses in Sequence Stratigraphy PRECAMBRIAN VS. PHANEROZOIC SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY MOVING FORWARD TOWARD STANDARDIZING SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY CONCLUDING REMARKS REFERENCES AUTHOR INDEX Subject index