Table of ContentsCerebral Blood Flow, Don Reis.L. Sokoloff, Anatomy: Arterial Innervation, Cerebral Veins, and Microcirculation.G.J. del Zoppo, Embryogenesis and Angiogenesis.G. Feurerstein and A. Miller, Vasoactive Mediators of Cerebral Vessels.F.M. Faraci and D. Heistad, Biology of Cerebral Vascular Muscle.P.A. Stewart, Glial-Vascular Relations.W. Pardridge, Transport Mechanism.S.I. Rapoport, Brain Edema and the Blood-Brain Barrier.G.A. Rosenberg, CSF: Formation, Absorption, Markers and Relationship to Blood-Brain Barrier.C. Iadecola, Principles and Methods for Measurement of Cerebral Blood Flow.J. Mazziotta, M. Cohen, and A. Toga, The Measurement of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism in Human Subjects.P.D. Hurm and R. Traystman, Overview of Cerebrovascular Hemodynamics.A.G. Hudetz, Cerebral Microcirculation.J-M. Chillon and G. Baumbach, Autoregulation of Cerebral Blood Flow.D. Traystman, Regulation of CBF by Carbon Dioxide.E. Golanov and D. Reis, Regulation of CBF by Hypoxia.L. Edvinsson and P.J. Goadsby, Extrinsic Innervation: Transmitters, Receptors and Functions--The Sympathetic Nervous System.P.J. Goadsby and L. Edvinsson, Extrinsic Innervation: Transmitters, Receptors and Functions--The Parasympathetic Nervous System.P.J. Goadsby and L. Edvinsson, Extrinsic Innervation: Transmitters, Receptors and Functions--the Trigeminovascular System.P. Magistretti, Coupling of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism.U. Dirnagl and J. Dreier, Regulation of CBF by Ions21.H.R. Winn, Adenosine and Its Receptors: Influence on Cerebral Blood Flow.G. Bonvento and E.T. MacKenzie, Serotonin and Its Receptors.D.G. Linville and E. Hamel, Acetylcholine and Its Receptors.P.M. Lacombe and E. MacKenzie, Catecholamines and Their Receptors.J. McCulloch, Neuropeptide Transmitters and Their Receptors.D.W. Busija, Eicosanoids and Cerebrovascular Control.T. Dalkara and M.A. Moskowitz, The Role of Nitric Oxide in Cerebral IschemiaPathogenesis and Pathology, Bo Siesjo.M. Leist and P. Nicotera, Cell Death: Apoptosis Versus Necrosis.W. Pulsinelli, Selective Neuronal Vulnerability and Infarction in Cerebrovascular Disease.J.H. Garcia, Evolution of Brain Lesion Induced by Experimental Focal Ischemia.A. Tamura and H. Nakayama, Neuronal Damage in Remote Areas After Focal Cerebral Infarct.C.D. Lacola and R.P. Kraig, Astrocyte Reaction to Global Ischemic Brain Injury.D. Guilian, Microglia and Inflammatory Responses.M.D. Ginsberg, Animal Models of Global and Focal Cerebral Ischemia.P.H. Chan, Transgenic Mice.C. Whalestedt, Gene Knock-Out Techniques.U. Dimagl, Measurements of Microcirculatory Events in the Brain in Vivo.R.A. Knight and M. Chopp, Imaging Techniques for Focal Ischemic Damage.B.B. Johansson, Hypertension.K. Rajamani and Mark Fisher, An Overview of Atherosclerosis.H.-P. Haring and G.J. del Zoppo, Thrombosis.A. Baethmann and F. Straub, Cellular Edema.A.L. Betz, Vasogenic Brain Edema.K.-I. Katsura., Acidosis as a Complicating Factor in Cerebral Ischemia.W.D. Dietrich and R. Busto, Hyperthermia and Brain Ischemia.R.A. Floyd, Production of Free Radicals.K.A. Hossmann, Peri-Infarct Depolarization Waves.B. Siesjo and Tibor Kirstian, Cell Calcium Homeostatis and Calcium-Related Ischemic Damage.M. Erecinska and I.A. Silver, Loss of Neuronal Calcium Homeostasis in Ischemia.N.R. Sims, Mitochondrial Function and Calcium Sequestration During Repurfusion.D.W. Choi, The Excitotoxic Concept.M. Tymianski and R.G. Sattler, Is Calcium Involved in Excitotoxic/Ischemic Neuronal Damage?N. Bazan, Lipid Metabolities as Mediators of Cell Death.N. Kawai and H. Tsubokawa, The Role of Inositol Phospholipid Metabolites.V. Bruno, A. Copani, G. Battaglia, G. Casabona, and F. Nicoletti, Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors as a Drug Target in Brain Ischemia.E.D. Hall, Lipid Peroxidation.P.S. Cole, M.E. Harris, J.M. Carney, N.C. Hall, and D.A. Butterfield, Methods of Evaluating Protein Oxidation Induced by Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury.T. Dallkara and M.A. Moskowitz, The Role of Nitric Oxide in Cerebral Ischemia.J. Beckman, Nitric Oxide, Superoxide, and Peroxynitrate in CNS Injury.S.A. Lipton, NO-Related Species: Neuroprotection Versus Neurodestruction.W. Kuschinsky, Microvascular Patency in Ischemia and Reperfusion.G.J. del Zoppo, Reperfusion Damage: The Role of PMN Leukocytes.G. Feuerstein, Inflammatory Mediators in Brain Microvessels.B.K. Siesjo and M-L. Smith, Mechanisms of Acidosis-Related Damage.T.W. Wieloch, The Signal Transduction Pathway: An Integrated View.P. Gass, C. Sommer, and M. Kiessling, Immediate Early Gene Expression After Global Cerebral Ischemia and Ischemia Tolerance Induction.T. Nowak, Jr., The Heat Shock/Stress Response After Ischemia.Mark P. Mattson, Trophic Factors and Brain Cell Survival.T. Kirnino, Ischemic Tolerance.D.L. Small and A.M. Buchan, NMDA and AMPA Receptor Antagonists in Global and Focal Ischemia.B. Meldrum, Sodium Channel Antagonists.J.W. Phillis, Adenosine Agonists and Antagonists.C.P. Taylor, Phenytoin and Fosphenytoin.E.D. Hall, Antioxidant 21-aminosteroids.J.W. Phillis, Free Radical Scavengers and Spin Traps.Y. Yamasaki and Kyuya Kogure, Cytokines, Growth Factors and Adhesion Molecules in Inflammatory Reaction After Brain Damage.J-M. Ren and S.P. Finklestein, Trophic Factor Treatment for Stroke.M.D. Ginsberg, Hypothermic Neuroprotection in Cerebral IschemiaMedical and Surgical Aspects: Louis Caplan, Bryce Weir and Mike Welch.S.F. Ameriso and S. Sahai, Mechanisms of Ischemia in Situ Vascular Occlusive Disease.V Castillo and J. Bogousslavsky, Brain Embolism.J.L. Bernat, Systemic Hypoperfusion Brain Injury.M.S. Pessin, Anterior Circulation--Large Artery Occlusive Disease and Embolism.Robert Joseph Wityk, Posterior Circulation--Large Artery Occlusive Disease and Embolism.M. Hommel, Small Artery Occlusive Disease.L. Caplan, Vascular Dementia.L.R. Rogers, Stroke and Neoplasia.B.T. Troost, Stroke and the Eye.V.M. Rivera, Corticosteroids in Acute Stroke.V.M. Rivera, Spinal Stroke.Stephen J. Kittner and Trudy Bush, Pregnancy, Hormonal Contraception, and Postmenopausal Estrogen Replacement Therapy.M.I. Chimowitz, Ischemic Stroke in the Young.J.P. Broderick, Stroke and Migraine.P. Mitsias, Head Pain and Stroke.A. Valadka and C.S. Robertson, Stroke Secondary to Trauma.M.R. Mayberg, Radiation Arteriopathy.P. Amerenco, Aortic Arch Artherosclerotic Disease.M. O'Brien, Rare Stroke.C.F. Bladin and J.W. Norris, Stroke and Seizures/Epilepsy.G.E. Tietjen, Transient Focal Neurologic Events.R. Atkinson, Pediatric Stroke.J.S. Meyer, T. Shirai, and H. Akiyama, Vascular Dementia.B. Johansson, Hypertensive Encephalotherapy.G.A. Rosenberg, White Matter Disorders.P. Moore, Immune Mediated Neurovascular Disease.S.R. Levine, Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome.M-G. Bousser, Cerebral Venous Thrombosis.B. Mokri, Spontaneous Dissections of Cervicocephalic Arteries.J.A. Hunchey and A.J. Furlan, The Heart in Stroke.B.M. Couil, Primary Coagulopathies/DIC in Stroke Hematologic Coagulopathy in Stroke.L.R. Anderson and W.M. Feinberg, Primary Platelet Disorders.E.A. Sekul and R.J. Adams, Stroke and Sickle Cell Disease.H. Chabriat, CADASIL.M. Sloan, Toxicity/Substance Abuse.A.A. Kurdi and B.A. Yaqub, Stroke and Infection: Tuberculosis, Brucellosis and Syphillis.J.C.M. Brust, AIDS and Stroke.M.R. Chicoine and R.G. Dacey, Clinical Aspects of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.J.L. Voelker and H.H. Kaufman, Clinical Aspects of Intracerebral Hemorrhage.J.M. Findlay and J.H. Wong, Clinical Aspects of Intraventricular Hemorrhage.R. Kim and P.R. Cooper, Clinical Aspects of Subdural Hemorrhage (SDH).R.H. Winn, Timing of Surgery and Features of Ruptured Anterior Circulation Aneurysm.J.M. Sheehan, G.A. Helm, J.P. Sheehan and N. Kassell, Surgical Management of Acutely Ruptured Posterior Circulation Aneurysm.L. Dickinson and A.L. Day, Surgical Management of the Patient with Symptomatic Unruptured Aneurysm.R.A. Solomon, Surgical Management of Patient with Incidental, Asymptomatic Aneurysm.T. Kopitnik and D.S. Samson, Surgical Management of Patient with a Giant Aneurysm.C.L. Schnee and E.S. Flamm, Surgical Management of Special Aneurysms.R.L. Macdonald, Surgical Management of Aneurysms in the Pediatric Age Group.R.L. Macdonald, Unique Features of Aneurysms by Location.R.L. Macdonald, Cerebral Vasospasm.G.W. Britz and M.R. Mayberg, Pathology of Cerebral Aneurysms and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.C.M. Loftus, Management of Intracerebellar Hematomas and Infarcts.E.R. Laws, Jr., Surgical Management of Pituitary Apoplexy.M.T. Lawton and R.F. Spetler, Surgical Management of Acutely Ruptured Arteriovenous Malformations.C. David and R.C. Heros, Surgical Management of Unruptured AVMs.G.M. Malik, Special Considerations in Treating Arteriovenous Malformations.S.A. Toms and D. Chyatte, Cerebral Venous Thrombosis.N.A. Martin and R. Patwardhan, Venous Angiomas.J. Kernan, G. Nesbit, and S. Barnwell, Vein of Galen Abnormalities.D.A. Wecht and I.A. Awad, Carotid Cavernous and Other Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas.J.M. Tew and S. Sathi, Caverous Malformations.D.L. Barrow, Spinal Vascular Malformations.M.R. Hahn, R.C. Mendel and L.P. Carter, Extracranial Arterial Injury.F.G. Diaz, Surgical Aspects of Vertebral Basilar Atherosclerosis.F.B. Meyer and N.C. Fode, Middle Cerebral Artery Embolectomy.B. Weir, Extracranial and Intracranial Bypass Procedures.H. Yonas, Surgery for Ischemic Infarcts.J.T. Robertson, Carotid Endarterectomy.T. Fukushima, Surgical Aspects of Moyamoya DiseaseInvestigation and Management, Mike Welch.L. Caplan, Clinical Diagnosis and General Laboratory Evaluation.J.R. Carhuapoma and K.M.A. Welch, Cerebral Spinal Fluid in Stroke.N.J. Beauchamp and R.N. Bryan, Neuroimaging of Stroke.B. Mehta, Cerebral Arteriography.A.V. Alexandrov and J.W. Norris, Cervical Ultrasound.R.M. Dafer and N.M. Ramadan, Transcrania Doppler Sonography and Stroke.J.J. Halperin, Cardiac Ultrasound in Stroke Investigation.M.R. DiTullio, R. Sacco, and S. Homma, Ultrasound Examination of the Aortic Arch in Stroke.T-S. Olsen, SPECT in Stroke Investigation.R. Frackowiak, PET CBF Investigation of Stroke.Y. Cao, Functional Magnetics Resonance Imaging in Stroke.C.P. Derdeyn and W.J. Powers, Metabolic Studies Using PET in Stroke Investigation.P.B. Barker, Metabolism: Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Spectroscopic Imaging.C. Webb, Cardiac Electrophysiology in Stroke Investigation.G.G. Brown and S.S. Kinderman, Neuropsychological Aspects of Stroke.M. De Marinis, Investigation of Autonomic Dysfunction in Acute Stroke.T. Kwiatkowski and R.B. Libman, Emergency Strategies.J.B. Terry and D.F. Hanley, General Treatment in Intensive Care Setting Stroke.J.B. Terry and D.F. Hanley, Physiologic Monitoring of Stroke in Intensive Care Setting.J.B. Terry and D.F. Hanley, Evaluation of Stroke Patients in Intensive Care Setting.S.C. Fagan, Management of Hypertension in Stroke.F.W. Whitehouse, Management of Diabetes in Stroke.S.M. Oppenheimer, Management of Cardiac/ECG Complications of Stroke.M. De Marinis, Management of Dysautonomia/Hypotension.R.J. Gerwitz and G.K. Steinberg, Management of Cerebreal Edema/ICP in Stroke.R.G. Robinson and S. Paradiso, Depression, Psychosis, Agitation in Stroke.B. Smith, Management of Seizures in Acute Stroke.J.A. Sandin III, M.K. Baskaya, and R.J. Dempsey, Management of Lipid Metabolism.C.M. Helgason, Mechanisms of Antiplatelet Agents and Their Prevention of Stroke.D.G. Sherman and D. Lalonde, Anticoagulants in Stroke.T.G. Brott, J.P. Broderick, and R. Kothari, Thrombolysis for Acute Ischemic Stroke.D. Chiu and J.C. Grotta, Current Clinical Status of Cytoprotection.T. Shirai, J.S. Meyer, and H. Akiyama, Management of Acute Stroke with Hyperosmolar Agents.F. McDowell, Rehabilitation for Victims of Stroke.J.L. Poole, Rehabilitation: Occupational Therapy for Stroke.S.J. Olney and C.S. Martin, Diseases: Physical Therapy.P.A. Wolf, Epidemiology and Risk Factor Management.H.J.M. Barnett and H.E. Meldrum, The Prevention of Ischemic Stroke.K. Murros and J.F. Toole, Management of Asymptomatic Extracranial Carotid Artery Disease.J.K. Roberts and J.P. Mohr, Stroke in Evolution.R.T.F. Cheung and V. Hachinski, Management of Vascular Dementia.D.J. Thomas, Basilar Thrombosis.H. Mansbach, Stroke Units.R.G. Hart, Management of Atrial Fibrillation.D. Barbut and L.R. Caplan, Cerebrovascular Complications of Cardiac Surgery.R.G. Hart, Management of Atrial Fibrillation.J.A. Zivin, Emerging Treatments for Stroke.L.N. Hopkins, L.R. Guterman, and K.J.Gibbons, Endovascular Therapy for the Treatment of Cerebrovascular Disease.