Physical Metallurgy and Advanced Materials book cover

Physical Metallurgy and Advanced Materials

Physical Metallurgy and Advanced Materials, Seventh Edition, discusses the fundamental principles of metallurgy and materials science. The present volume emerged from earlier editions of Modern Physical Metallurgy (1962, 1970, 1985) and later editions of Modern Physical Metallurgy and Materials Engineering (1995, 1999). Presentations and content have been updated, and each chapter ends with a set of questions to enable readers to apply the scientific concepts presented in the chapter, as well as emphasize important material properties. Topics covered include atoms and atomic arrangements, phase equilibria and structure, crystal defects, characterization and analysis of materials, and physical and mechanical properties of materials. The chapters also examine the properties of materials, such as advanced alloys, ceramics, glass, polymers, plastics, composites, biomaterials, sports materials, and nanomaterials.

Audience
Mid/senior undergraduate and graduate students taking courses in metallurgy, materials science, physical metallurgy, mechanical engineering, biomedical engineering, physics, manufacturing engineering and related courses

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Published: October 2007

Imprint: Butterworth Heinemann

ISBN: 978-0-7506-6906-1

Contents

  • PrefaceAbout the authorsAcknowledgmentsIllustration creditsChapter 1 Atoms and atomic arrangements 1.1 The realm of materials science 1.2 The free atom 1.2.1 The four electron quantum numbers 1.2.2 Nomenclature for the electronic states 1.3 The Periodic Table 1.4 Interatomic bonding in materials 1.5 Bonding and energy levels 1.6 Crystal lattices and structures 1.7 Crystal directions and planes 1.8 Stereographic projection 1.9 Selected crystal structures 1.9.1 Pure metals 1.9.2 Diamond and graphite 1.9.3 Coordination in ionic crystals 1.9.4 AB-type compoundsChapter 2 Phase equilibria and structure 2.1 Crystallization from the melt 2.1.1 Freezing of a pure metal 2.1.2 Plane-front and dendritic solidification at a cooled surface 2.1.3 Forms of cast structure 2.1.4 Gas porosity and segregation 2.1.5 Directional solidification 2.1.6 Production of metallic single crystals for research 2.2 Principles and applications of phase diagrams 2.2.1 The concept of a phase 2.2.2 The Phase Rule 2.2.3 Stability of phases 2.2.4 Two-phase equilibria 2.2.5 Three-phase equilibria and reactions 2.2.6 Intermediate phases 2.2.7 Limitations of phase diagrams 2.2.8 Some key phase diagrams 2.2.9 Ternary phase diagrams 2.3 Principles of alloy theory 2.3.1 Primary substitutional solid solutions 2.3.2 Interstitial solid solutions 2.3.3 Types of intermediate phases 2.3.4 Order-disorder phenomena 2.4 The mechanism of phase changes 2.4.1 Kinetic considerations 2.4.2 Homogeneous nucleation 2.4.3 Heterogeneous nucleation 2.4.4 Nucleation in solidsChapter 3 Crystal defects 3.1 Types of imperfection 3.2 Point defects 3.2.1 Point defects in metals 3.2.2 Point defects in non-metallic crystals 3.2.3 Irradiation of solids 3.2.4 Point defect concentration and annealing 3.3 Line defects 3.3.1 Concept of a dislocation 3.3.2 Edge and screw dislocations 3.3.3 The Burgers vector 3.3.4 Mechanisms of slip and climb 3.3.5 Strain energy associated with dislocations 3.3.6 Dislocations in ionic structures 3.4 Planar defects 3.4.1 Grain boundaries 3.4.2 Twin boundaries 3.4.3 Extended dislocations and stacking faults in close-packed crystals 3.5 Volume defects 3.5.1 Void formation and annealing 3.5.2 Irradiation and voiding 3.5.3 Voiding and fracture 3.6 Defect behavior in common crystal structures 3.6.1 Dislocation vector diagrams and the Thompson tetrahedron 3.6.2 Dislocations and stacking faults in fcc structures 3.6.3 Dislocations and stacking faults in cph structures 3.6.4 Dislocations and stacking faults in bcc structures 3.6.5 Dislocations and stacking faults in ordered structures 3.7 Stability of defects 3.7.1 Dislocation loops 3.7.2 Voids 3.7.3 Nuclear irradiation effectsChapter 4 Characterization and analysis 4.1 Tools of characterization 4.2 Light microscopy 4.2.1 Basic principles 4.2.2 Selected microscopical techniques 4.3 X-ray diffraction analysis 4.3.1 Production and absorption of X-rays 4.3.2 Diffraction of X-rays by crystals 4.3.3 X-ray diffraction methods 4.3.4 Typical interpretative procedures for diffraction patterns 4.4 Analytical electron microscopy 4.4.1 Interaction of an electron beam with a solid 4.4.2 The transmission electron microscope (TEM) 4.4.3 The scanning electron microscope 4.4.4 Theoretical aspects of TEM 4.4.5 Chemical microanalysis 4.4.6 Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) 4.4.7 Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) 4.5 Observation of defects 4.5.1 Etch pitting 4.5.2 Dislocation decoration 4.5.3 Dislocation strain contrast in TEM 4.5.4 Contrast from crystals 4.5.5 Imaging of dislocations 4.5.6 Imaging of stacking faults 4.5.7 Application of dynamical theory 4.5.8 Weak-beam microscopy 4.6 Scanning probe microscopy 4.6.1 Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) 4.6.2 Atomic force microscopy (AFM) 4.6.3 Applications of SPM 4.6.4 Nanoindentation 4.7 Specialized bombardment techniques 4.7.1 Neutron diffraction 4.7.2 Synchrotron radiation studies 4.7.3 Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) 4.8 Thermal analysis 4.8.1 General capabilities of thermal analysis 4.8.2 Thermogravimetric analysis 4.8.3 Differential thermal analysis 4.8.4 Differential scanning calorimetryChapter 5 Physical properties 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Density 5.3 Thermal properties 5.3.1 Thermal expansion 5.3.2 Specific heat capacity 5.3.3 The specific heat curve and transformations 5.3.4 Free energy of transformation 5.4 Diffusion 5.4.1 Diffusion laws 5.4.2 Mechanisms of diffusion 5.4.3 Factors affecting diffusion 5.5 Anelasticity and internal friction 5.6 Ordering in alloys 5.6.1 Long-range and short-range order 5.6.2 Detection of ordering 5.6.3 Influence of ordering on properties 5.7 Electrical properties 5.7.1 Electrical conductivity 5.7.2 Semiconductors 5.7.3 Hall effect 5.7.4 Superconductivity 5.7.5 Oxide superconductors 5.8 Magnetic properties 5.8.1 Magnetic susceptibility 5.8.2 Diamagnetism and paramagnetism 5.8.3 Ferromagnetism 5.8.4 Magnetic alloys 5.8.5 Anti-ferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism 5.9 Dielectric materials 5.9.1 Polarization 5.9.2 Capacitors and insulators 5.9.3 Piezoelectric materials 5.9.4 Pyroelectric and ferroelectric materials 5.10 Optical properties 5.10.1 Reflection, absorption and transmission effects 5.10.2 Optical fibers 5.10.3 Lasers 5.10.4 Ceramic ‘windows’ 5.10.5 Electro-optic ceramicsChapter 6 Mechanical properties I 6.1 Mechanical testing procedures 6.1.1 Introduction 6.1.2 The tensile test 6.1.3 Indentation hardness testing 6.1.4 Impact testing 6.1.5 Creep testing 6.1.6 Fatigue testing 6.2 Elastic deformation 6.3 Plastic deformation 6.3.1 Slip and twinning 6.3.2 Resolved shear stress 6.3.3 Relation of slip to crystal structure 6.3.4 Law of critical resolved shear stress 6.3.5 Multiple slip 6.3.6 Relation between work hardening and slip 6.4 Dislocation behavior during plastic deformation 6.4.1 Dislocation mobility 6.4.2 Variation of yield stress with temperature and strain rate 6.4.3 Dislocation source operation 6.4.4 Discontinuous yielding 6.4.5 Yield points and crystal structure 6.4.6 Discontinuous yielding in ordered alloys 6.4.7 Solute-dislocation interaction 6.4.8 Dislocation locking and temperature 6.4.9 Inhomogeneity interaction 6.4.10 Kinetics of strain ageing 6.4.11 Influence of grain boundaries on plasticity 6.4.12 Superplasticity 6.5 Mechanical twinning 6.5.1 Crystallography of twinning 6.5.2 Nucleation and growth of twins 6.5.3 Effect of impurities on twinning 6.5.4 Effect of prestrain on twinning 6.5.5 Dislocation mechanism of twinning 6.5.6 Twinning and fracture 6.6 Strengthening and hardening mechanisms 6.6.1 Point defect hardening 6.6.2 Work hardening 6.6.3 Development of preferred orientation 6.7 Macroscopic plasticity 6.7.1 Tresca and von Mises criteria 6.7.2 Effective stress and strain 6.8 Annealing 6.8.1 General effects of annealing 6.8.2 Recovery 6.8.3 Recrystallization 6.8.4 Grain growth 6.8.5 Annealing twins 6.8.6 Recrystallization textures 6.9 Metallic creep 6.9.1 Transient and steady-state creep 6.9.2 Grain boundary contribution to creep 6.9.3 Tertiary creep and fracture 6.9.4 Creep-resistant alloy design 6.10 Deformation mechanism maps 6.11 Metallic fatigue 6.11.1 Nature of fatigue failure 6.11.2 Engineering aspects of fatigue 6.11.3 Structural changes accompanying fatigue 6.11.4 Crack formation and fatigue failure 6.11.5 Fatigue at elevated temperaturesChapter 7 Mechanical properties II - Strengthening and toughening 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Strengthening of non-ferrous alloys by heat treatment 7.2.1 Precipitation hardening of Al-Cu alloys 7.2.2 Precipitation hardening of Al-Ag alloys 7.2.3 Mechanisms of precipitation hardening 7.2.4 Vacancies and precipitation 7.2.5 Duplex ageing 7.2.6 Particle coarsening 7.2.7 Spinodal decomposition 7.3 Strengthening of steels by heat treatment 7.3.1 Time-temperature-transformation diagrams 7.3.2 Austenite-pearlite transformation 7.3.3 Austenite-martensite transformation 7.3.4 Austenite-bainite transformation 7.3.5 Tempering of martensite 7.3.6 Thermomechanical treatments 7.4 Fracture and toughness 7.4.1 Griffith microcrack criterion 7.4.2 Fracture toughness 7.4.3 Cleavage and the ductile-brittle transition 7.4.4 Factors affecting brittleness of steels 7.4.5 Hydrogen embrittlement of steels 7.4.6 Intergranular fracture 7.4.7 Ductile failure 7.4.8 Rupture 7.4.9 Voiding and fracture at elevated temperatures 7.4.10 Fracture mechanism maps 7.4.11 Crack growth under fatigue conditions 7.5 Atomistic modeling of mechanical behavior 7.5.1 Multiscale modeling 7.5.2 Atomistic simulations of defectsChapter 8 Advanced alloys 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Commercial steels 8.2.1 Plain carbon steels 8.2.2 Alloy steels 8.2.3 Maraging steels 8.2.4 High-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steels 8.2.5 Dual-phase (DP) steels 8.2.6 Mechanically alloyed (MA) steels 8.2.7 Designation of steels 8.3 Cast irons 8.4 Superalloys 8.4.1 Basic alloying features 8.4.2 Nickel-based superalloy development 8.4.3 Dispersion-hardened superalloys 8.5 Titanium alloys 8.5.1 Basic alloying and heat-treatment features 8.5.2 Commercial titanium alloys 8.5.3 Processing of titanium alloys 8.6 Structural intermetallic compounds 8.6.1 General properties of intermetallic compounds 8.6.2 Nickel aluminides 8.6.3 Titanium aluminides 8.6.4 Other intermetallic compounds 8.7 Aluminum alloys 8.7.1 Designation of aluminum alloys 8.7.2 Applications of aluminum alloys 8.7.3 Aluminum-lithium alloys 8.7.4 Processing developmentsChapter 9 Oxidation, corrosion and surface treatment 9.1 The engineering importance of surfaces 9.2 Metallic corrosion 9.2.1 Oxidation at high temperatures 9.2.2 Aqueous corrosion 9.3 Surface engineering 9.3.1 The coating and modification of surfaces 9.3.2 Surface coating by vapor deposition 9.3.3 Surface coating by particle bombardment 9.3.4 Surface modification with high-energy beams 9.4 Thermal barrier coatings 9.5 Diamond-like carbon 9.6 Duplex surface engineeringChapter 10 Non-metallics I - Ceramics, glass, glass-ceramics 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Sintering of ceramic powders 10.2.1 Powdering and shaping 10.2.2 Sintering 10.3 Some engineering and commercial ceramics 10.3.1 Alumina 10.3.2 Silica 10.3.3 Silicates 10.3.4 Perovskites, titanates and spinels 10.3.5 Silicon carbide 10.3.6 Silicon nitride 10.3.7 Sialons 10.3.8 Zirconia 10.4 Glasses 10.4.1 Structure and characteristics 10.4.2 Processing and properties 10.4.3 Glass-ceramics 10.5 Carbon 10.5.1 Diamond 10.5.2 Graphite 10.5.3 Fullerenes and related nanostructures 10.6 Strength of ceramics and glasses 10.6.1 Strength measurement for brittle materials 10.6.2 Statistical nature and size dependence of strength 10.6.3 Stress corrosion cracking of ceramics and glasses 10.7 A case study: thermal protection system in space shuttle orbiterChapter 11 Non-metallics II - Polymers, plastics, composites 11.1 Polymer molecules 11.2 Molecular weight 11.3 Polymer shape and structure 11.4 Polymer crystallinity 11.5 Polymer crystals 11.6 Mechanical behavior 11.6.1 Deformation 11.6.2 Viscoelasticity 11.6.3 Fracture 11.7 Plastics and additives 11.8 Polymer processing 11.9 Electrical properties 11.10 Composites 11.10.1 Particulate composites 11.10.2 Fiber-reinforced composites 11.10.3 Fiber orientations 11.10.4 Influence of fiber length 11.10.5 Composite fibers 11.10.6 Polymer-matrix composites (PMCs) 11.10.7 Metal-matrix composites (MMCs) 11.10.8 Ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs)Chapter 12 Case examination of biomaterials, sports materials and nanomaterials 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Biomaterials 12.2.1 Introduction and bio-requirements 12.2.2 Introduction to bone and tissue 12.2.3 Case consideration of replacement joints 12.2.4 Biomaterials for heart repair 12.2.5 Reconstructive surgery 12.2.6 Ophthalmics 12.2.7 Dental materials 12.2.8 Drug delivery systems 12.3 Sports materials 12.3.1 Introduction 12.3.2 Golf equipment 12.3.3 Tennis equipment 12.3.4 Bicycles 12.3.5 Skiing materials 12.3.6 Archery 12.3.7 Fencing foils 12.3.8 Sports protection 12.4 Materials for nanotechnology 12.4.1 Introduction 12.4.2 Nanoparticles 12.4.3 Fullerenes and nanotubes 12.4.4 Quantum wells, wires and dots 12.4.5 Bulk nanostructured solids 12.4.6 Mechanical properties of small material volumes 12.4.7 Bio-nanotechnologyNumerical answers to problemsAppendix 1 SI unitsAppendix 2 Conversion factors, constants and physical dataIndex

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