Nutritional Aspects of Osteoporosis book cover

Nutritional Aspects of Osteoporosis

This book is based on presentations given at the Fifth International Symposium on Nutritional Aspects of Osteoporosis held in Lausanne, Switzerland in 2003. Although an often neglected chapter of medical research, the nutritional influences on bone health was a discussed topic at this congress. Also discussed were new insights into the role of proteins, vitamins, potassium, vegetables, food acid load, mineral waters and calcium.

Audience
Nutritionists, Bone Biologists, Endocrinologists

Hardbound, 488 Pages

Published: July 2004

Imprint: Academic Press

ISBN: 978-0-12-141704-8

Reviews

  • "...covers important aspects of nutrition and bone health...Students of nutrition and osteoporosis will find this book critical to their study." - American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (April 2005) "This book provides a general overview of the current understanding of various nutritional and hormonal elements related to the etiology and treatment of osteoporosis. The focus on clinical research makes it a useful tool for researchers in the basic sciences for understanding the current status of clinical studies, as well as a useful tool for clinical researchers for general information about areas of research outside their own." -Katie Beth Williams, BS, PhD in progress(University of Wisconsin-Madison)for DOODYS

Contents


  • Sponsors

    Contributors

    Preface

    Part I Calcium in Childhood

    1. Bone Mineral Density of the Skull and Lower Extremities During Growth and Calcium Supplementation

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Method

    Results

    Discussion

    Acknowledgments

    References

    2. Calcium Retention in Adolescence as a Function of Calcium Intake: Influence of Race and Gender

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Methods for Determining Calcium Retention and Metabolism

    Racial Differences in Calcium Metabolism

    Gender Differences in Calcium Metabolism

    Further Directions

    References

    3. Longitudinal Study of Diet and Lifestyle Intervention on Bone Mineral Gain in School Children and Adolescents: Effects of Asian Traditional Diet and Sitting Style on Bone Mineral

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Subjects and Methods

    Results

    Discussion

    Acknowledgment

    References

    4. A Co-Twin Calcium Intervention Trial in Premenarcheal Girls: Cortical Bone Effects by Hip Structural Analysis

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Methods

    Statistical Analyses

    Results

    Discussion

    References

    5. Calcium Carbonate Supplementation is Associated with Higher Plasma IGF-1 in 16- to 18-Year-Old Boys and Girls

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Methods

    Results

    Discussion

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Part II Dairy Products, Calcium Metabolism

    6. Nutrients, Interactions, and Foods: The Importance of Source

    Introduction

    Calcium and Diet Quality

    Calcium and Protein

    Phosphorus and Calcium

    Conclusion

    References

    Part III Vitamins, Flavonoids

    7. Vitamin K and Bone Health

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Sites of Vitamin K Action

    Similarities Between Calcium Metabolism in Bone and Arteries

    Vitamin K Status and Bone Health

    Vitamin K Status and Cardiovascular Health

    Vitamin K Intervention Studies

    Dietary Vitamin K Requirements for Bone and Vascular Health

    Safety and Potential Adverse Side Effects of Vitamin K Supplements

    References

    8. Dietary Vitamin A is Negatively Related Density in Postmenopausal Women

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Methods

    Results

    Discussion

    Summary and Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    9. Hesperidin, a Citrus Flavanone, Improves Bone Acquisition and Prevents Skeletal Impairment in Rats

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Methods

    Results

    Discussion

    References

    10. Vitamin B-Complex, Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Polymorphism and Bone: Potential for Gene-Nutrient Interaction

    Abstract

    Introduction

    What is the Role of Methylene Tetrahydrofolate Reductase(MTHFR) Enzyme?

    MTHFR Polymorphism

    Vitamin B-Complex

    Conclusions

    References

    Part IV Nutrition and Bone Health Miscellaneous

    11. A Placebo Controlled Randomized Trial of Chromium Picolinate Supplementation on Indices of Bone and Calcium Metabolism in Healthy Women

    Abstract

    Subjects

    Methods

    Result

    Discussion

    Acknowledgments

    References

    12. Nutrition and Teeth

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Oral Bone Loss and Systemic Bone Mineral Density

    Nutrition, Periodontal Disease and Tooth Loss

    Relationship of Calcium, Vitamin D, and Phosphorus to Periodontal Disease and Tooth Loss

    Conclusions

    Summary

    References

    13. Cognitive Dietary Restraint, Cortisol and Bone Density in Normal-Weight Women: Is There a Relationship?

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Possible Mechanism

    Assessment of Dietary Restraint

    Associations Between Dietary Restraint and Menstrual Disturbances

    Associations Between Subclinical Menstrual Disturbances and Bone Loss

    Associations Between Dietary Restraint and Cortisol

    Association Between Dietary Restraint and Bone

    Summary

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Part V Vitamin D-First Part

    14. Functions of Vitamin D: Importance for Prevention of Common Cancers, Type 1 Diabetes and Heart Disease

    Evolution of Vitamin D

    Photosynthesis and Regulation of Previtamin D3

    Vitamin D and Bone Health

    Metabolism and Biologic Functions of Vitamin D Prevalence and Consequences of Vitamin D Deficiency on Bone Health

    Other Health Consequences of Vitamin D Deficiency: Increased Risk of Autoimmune Diseases, Solid Tumors, and Cardiovascular Heart Disease

    Clinical Applications for the Antiproliferative Activity of l,25(OH)2D3 and its Analogs

    Prevention and Treatment of Vitamin D Deficiency

    Conclusion

    Acknowledgment

    References

    15. Evidence for the Breakpoint of Normal Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D: Which Level Is Required in the Elderly?

    Introduction

    Assessing the Required Serum 25(OH)D Concentration

    Evidence from Epidemiological and Intervention Studies

    The Influence of Calcium Intake on Serum PTH and Vitamin D Metabolism

    Staging of Vitamin D Deficiency

    Conclusion

    References

    16. What is the Optimal Amount of Vitamin D for Osteoporosis?

    Introduction

    Vitamin D and Osteoporosis

    Dosage Considerations

    Hormonal l,25(OH)2D is not an Alternative to Nutritional Vitamin D

    Summary

    References

    Part VI Vitamin D-Second Part

    17. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and the Health of the Calcium Economy

    Introduction

    Studies of Calcium Absorption

    Osteoporotic Fractures

    Comment

    References

    18. Defining Optimal 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels in Younger and Older Adults Based on Hip Bone Mineral Density

    Abstract

    PTH Versus BMD in Threshold Assessment for Optimal 25-OHD Levels

    Rationale for Assessment of Optimal 25-OHD in the Non-White Population

    Methods Applied to Study the Association Between 25-OHD and BMD in a Population-Based Sample

    Results

    Discussion

    References

    19. Vitamin D Supplementation in Postmenopausal Black Women Improves Calcium Homeostasis and Bone Turnover in Three Months

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Methods

    Results

    Discussion

    Acknowledgment

    References

    20. Adherence to Vitamin D Supplementation in Elderly Patients After Hip Fracture

    Introduction

    Patients and Methods

    Results

    Discussion

    Conclusion

    References

    21. Vitamin D Round Table

    Introduction

    What is the Optimal Level of 25(OH)D for the Skeleton and Why?

    How Much Vitamin D3 is Needed to Reach the Optimal Level of 25(OH)D?

    References

    Part VII Acid Load From Food-First Part

    22. Effects of Diet Acid Load on Bone Health

    Abstract

    Determinants of the Setpoint at which Blood Acidity and Plasma Bicarbonate Concentration are Regulated in Normal Subjects

    Chronic Metabolic Acidosis and Bone Wasting

    Plasma Acid-Base Balance and Diet Acid Load in Humans

    Crossing the Neutral Zone

    Implications for Further Research

    Acknowledgments

    References

    23. Effect of Various Classes of Foodstuffs and Beverages of Vegetable Origin on Bone Metabolism in the Rat

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Materials and Methods

    Results and Discussion

    What Should We Eat?

    References

    24. A Role for Fruit and Vegetables in Osteoporosis Prevention?

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Importance of Acid-Base Homeostasis to Optimum Health

    A Link Between Acid-Base Maintenance and Skeletal Integrity?

    Acidity of Foods and Skeletal Health: Concept of Potential Renal Acid Loads

    Positive Link Between Fruit and Vegetables, Alkali, and Bone Health: A Review of Current Evidence

    Concept of NEAP and its Potential Impact on the Skeleton

    Calcium/Alkali Supplements and Optimum Bone Health

    Fruit and Vegetables and Bone: Exploring Other Important Factors

    Concluding Remarks

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Part VIII Acid Load From Food-Second Part

    25. The Ovine Model for the Study of Dietary Acid Base, Estrogen Depletion and Bone Health

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Background and Significance

    The Influence of Dietary Strong Ions

    Determination of Dietary Acid Load

    The Dairy Connection

    Preliminary Studies

    Effect of a Diet Low in Cation-Anion Balance on Bone Mineral Density in Mature Ovariectomized Ewes

    Conclusion

    Acknowledgments

    References

    26. The Natural Dietary Potassium Intake of Humans: The Effect of Diet-Induced Potassium-Replete, Chloride-Sufficient, Chronic Low-Grade Metabolic Alkalosis, or Stone Age Diets for the 21st Century

    Abstract

    Ancestral Dietary Patterns

    Ancestral Potassium Intakes

    Acid-Base Relationship to Bone Health and Bone Mineral Density

    Conclusions

    Implications for Further Research

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Part IX Protein

    27. N-Acetyl Cysteine Supplementation of Growing Mice: Effects on Skeletal Size, Bone Mineral Density, and Serum IGF-I

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Materials and Methods

    Results

    Discussion

    References

    28. Dietary Protein Intakes and Bone Strength

    Introduction

    Dietary Protein and Bone Mass Gain

    Dietary Protein and Bone Mineral Mass

    Dietary Protein and Bone Homeostasis

    Effects of Correcting Protein Insufficiency

    Dietary Protein and Fracture Risk

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    29. Dietary Protein and the Skeleton

    Abstract

    Dietary Protein and Serum IGF-1

    Protein and Acid-Base Balance

    Protein and Urine Calcium Excretion

    Protein and Calcium Absorption

    Dietary Protein and Bone Turnover

    Protein, Bone Loss, and Fractures

    Potential Impact of Calcium Intake on Link Between Protein and Bone

    References

    Part X Protein-Mineral Water

    30. Milk Basic Protein Increases Bone Mineral Density and Improves Bone Metabolism in Humans

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Human Study 1

    Human Study 2

    Conclusion

    References

    31. Dietary Balance in Physically Active and Inactive Girls

    Abstract

    Introduction

    AIMS

    Subjects and Methods

    Results

    Discussion

    References

    32. Mineral Waters: Effects on Bone and Bone Metabolism

    Introduction

    Calcium

    Sodium

    Sulfates

    Carbonated Beverages

    Fluoride

    Acid Load

    Alkaline Load

    Potassium

    Conclusions

    References

    Index


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