Nitric Oxide

Biology and Pathobiology

Edited by

  • Louis Ignarro, Center for Health Sciences, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.

By

  • Louis Ignarro, Center for Health Sciences, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.

Nitric oxide (NO) is a gas that transmits signals in an organism. Signal transmission by a gas that is produced by one cell and which penetrates through membranes and regulates the function of another cell represents an entirely new principle for signaling in biological systems.NO is a signal molecule of key importance for the cardiovascular system acting as a regulator of blood pressure and as a gatekeeper of blood flow to different organs. NO also exerts a series of other functions, such as acting a signal molecule in the nervous system and as a weapon against infections. NO is present in most living creatures and made by many different types of cells.NO research has led to new treatments for treating heart as well as lung diseases, shock, and impotence. Scientists are currently testing whether NO can be used to stop the growth of cancerous tumors, since the gas can induce programmed cell death, apoptosis.This book is the first comprehensive text on nitric oxide to cover all aspects--basic biology, chemistry, pathobiology, effects on various disease states, and therapeutic implications.
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Audience

Researchers and students in biochemistry, cell and molecular biology, neuroscience, and pharmacology; academic clinicians in dermatology, neurology, and oncology.

 

Book information

  • Published: September 2000
  • Imprint: ACADEMIC PRESS
  • ISBN: 978-0-12-370420-7

Reviews

for those researchers interested in the detailed biochemistry of nitric oxide and its synthesis, the book will be a very valuable reference"
-—TODAY'S LIFE SCIENCE


"Louis J. Ignarro, pharmacologist in Los Angeles, participated in the quest for EDRF's chemical nature. He performed a brilliant series of analyses and concluded in 1986, together with and independently of Robert Furchgott, that EDRF was identical to NO. The problem was solved and Furchgott's endothelial factor identified. When Furchgott and Ignarro presented their conclusions at a conference in July 1986, it elicited an avalanche of research activities in many different laboratories around the world. This was the first discovery that a gas can act as a signal molecule in an organism."
--THE NOBEL ASSEMBLY, KAROLINSKA INSTITUTE, 1998



Table of Contents


Contributors

Preface

Section I Overview of Basic Principles

Chapter 1 Introduction and Overview

Section II Principles of Biology

A. Chemical Biology

Chapter 2 The Chemical Properties of Nitric Oxide and Related Nitrogen Oxides

Chapter 3 The Chemical Biology of Nitric Oxide

Chapter 4 The Biological Chemistry of Peroxynitrite

Chapter 5 A Comparison of the Biological Reactivity of Nitric Oxide and Peroxynitrite

B. Nitric Oxide Synthases

Chapter 6 Structural Variations to Accommodate Functional Themes of the Isoforms of NO Synthases

Chapter 7 Regulation of the Expression of Nitric Oxide Synthase Isoforms

Chapter 8 Molecular Regulation of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase

Chapter 9 Molecular Control of Endothelial Derived Nitric Oxide: A New Paradigm for Endothelial NOS Regulation by Posttranslational Modification

C. Regulation of Nitric Oxide Production

Chapter 10 Tetrahydrobiopterin: An Essential Cofactor of Nitric Oxide Synthase with an Elusive Role

Chapter 11 Regulation of Arginine Availability and Its Impact on NO Synthesis

Chapter 12 Relationship between Arginase Activity and Nitric Oxide Production

D. Transport, Membrane Interactions, and Oxygen Transport

Chapter 13 The Physical Properties of Nitric Oxide: Determinants of the Dynamics of NO in Tissue

Chapter 14 Membrane Transport of Arginine and Cationic Amino Acid Analogs

Chapter 15 The Respiratory Cycle: A Three-Gas System

E. Nitric Oxide and Oxidative Stress

Chapter 16 Role for Nitric Oxide and Other Radicals in Signal Transduction

Chapter 17 Antioxidant Actions of Nitric Oxide

Chapter 18 Mechanisms through Which Reactive Nitrogen and Oxygen Species Interact with Physiological Signaling Systems

Chapter 19 Nitric Oxide, Oxygen Radicals, and Iron Metabolism

Chapter 20 Redox Modulation of Iron Regulatory Proteins by Nitric Oxide and Peroxynitrite

Chapter 21 Nitric Oxide, Oxidative Stress, and Signal Transduction

Chapter 22 Mechanisms of Antioxidant Defense against Nitric Oxide/Peroxynitrite

Chapter 23 Regulation of Oxygen Metabolism by Nitric Oxide

F. Signal Transduction Mechanisms

Chapter 24 Structure-Function Relationships in NO-Sensitive Guanylyl Cyclase

Chapter 25 Mechanism of Activation of Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase by NO: Allosteric Regulation through Changes in Heme Coordination Geometry

Chapter 26 Cyclic GMP-Mediated Signaling Mechanisms in Smooth Muscle

Section III Principles of Pathobiology

A. NO and the Nervous System

Chapter 27 Influence of Nitric Oxide on Neuroendocrine Function and Behavior

Chapter 28 Nitric Oxide and Cerebral Ischemia

Chapter 29 Role of Nitric Oxide in Neuronal Protection versus Apoptosis

Chapter 30 Nitric Oxide and Autoimmune Disease in the Nervous System: Pathobiology of Inflammation and Demyelination

B. NO and Cardiovascular Function

Chapter 31 Role of Nitric Oxide in the Regulation of Blood Flow

Chapter 32 Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene Transfer

Chapter 33 Functional Influence of Gene Transfer of Recombinant Nitric Oxide Synthase to Cardiovascular System

Chapter 34 Nitric Oxide and Vascular Endothelial Dysfunction

Chapter 35 Endothelium-Derived Hyperpolarizing Factor and Its Interaction with NO

Chapter 36 Role of Nitric Oxide in Myocardial Function

Chapter 37 Role of Nitric Oxide in the Microcirculation

Chapter 38 Activation of NOS by Ca2+-Dependent and Ca2+-Independent Mechanisms

C. Pathophysiological Mechanisms of Nitric Oxide

Chapter 39 Role of Nitric Oxide in Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

Chapter 40 Nitric Oxide: A Critical Determinant in Ischemia-Reperfusion

Chapter 41 Role of Nitric Oxide in Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

Chapter 42 Use of Mutant Mice to Elucidate Neuroprotective and Neurotoxic Actions of Nitric Oxide in Cerebral Ischemia

Chapter 43 Neurotoxic Actions and Mechanisms of Nitric Oxide

Chapter 44 Role of Macrophage-Derived Nitric Oxide in Target Cell Injury

Chapter 45 Physiological and Pathophysiological Roles of Nitric Oxide in Gastrointestinal Function

Chapter 46 Pathophysiological Effects of High-Output Production of Nitric Oxide

Chapter 47 Nitric Oxide and Septic Shock

Chapter 48 Nitric Oxide and Vascular Disease

Chapter 49 Cytotoxic Role of Nitric Oxide in Diabetes

Chapter 50 Role of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Autoimmune or Other Immune-Mediated Diseases

Chapter 51 Nitric Oxide and Platelet Function

Chapter 52 Pathophysiological Roles of Nitric Oxide in Inflammation

Chapter 53 Nitric Oxide, Chronic Joint Inflammation, and Pain

Chapter 54 Nitric Oxide and Cancer

D. Clinical Significance of Nitric Oxide

Chapter 55 Vascular Nitric Oxide in Health and Disease

Chapter 56 Clinical Therapy with Inhaled Nitric Oxide in Respiratory Diseases

Chapter 57 Airborne Nitric Oxide in Health and Disease

Chapter 58 Nitric Oxide and Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension in the Newborn

Index