Neuromodulation book cover


Neuromodulation will be the first comprehensive and in-depth reference textbook covering all aspects of the rapidly growing field of neuromodulation. This book provides a complete discussion of the fundamental principles of neuromodulation and therapies applied to the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, autonomic nerves and various organs.
The textbook is highly structured and organized into overarching sections that cover chronic pain, movement disorders, psychiatric disorders, epilepsy, functional electrical stimulation, cardiac, gastrointestinal, genitourinary and organ neuromodulation. The fundamental principles of electricity and infusion, neural tissue interface, biomedical engineering, neuromodulation devices, basic science, neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, imaging and mechanisms are emphasized. In addition to providing details pertaining to the state-of-the-art current practice, innovative and emerging applications are discussed in specific chapters. Finally, the textbook provides specific chapters focusing on the technical aspects of the various neuromodulation procedures as well as technical specifications of various implantable devices.
All of the contributors to Neuromodulation represent leading experts in the field. The editors are internationally renowned in their respective fields of neuromodulation, pain management, functional neurosurgery and biomedical engineering. Neuromodulation will be the first and foremost authoritative text on neuromodulation therapies and will establish the gold standard that defines the field for years to come.

Basic scientists and academic clinicians in neuroscience, particularly neurophysiology, behavioral neuroscience, sensory neuroscience (including audiology, ophthalmology, and particularly pain), neuroanatomy, neurosurgery, neurological diseases, as well as physiologists in Cardiology, Gastroenterology, Urology. Biomedical engineersClinical specialists: anesthesiology, neurosurgery, neurology, neurophysiology, cardiology, gastroenterology, urology and orthopedics


Published: June 2009

Imprint: Academic Press

ISBN: 978-0-12-374248-3


  • "This reference is the product of a varied and exceptionally diverse collection of multidisciplinary, leading experts in the field who have added their significant contributions to the field of neuromodulation." - Elmer "Al" Pinzone, M.D., M.P.H., in Practical Pain Management, October 1, 2009 

    "Neuromodulation will be the go-to-it reference work for this rapidly expanding and fascinating field. The editors have assembled an all-star group of contributors who comprehensively cover all aspects of neuromodulation in the treatment of human disease and dysfunction." - John D. Loeser, M.D., Departments of Neurological Surgery and Anesthesiology, University of Washington, Seattle, USA

    "The greater than 40 year history of scientific inquiry into the interface between neural tissue and therapeutic electrical fields or targeted drug infusion has resulted in a body of rapidly growing evidence for positive effects when these technologies are applied to selected patients who suffer from chronic neurological diseases. The editors of Neuromodulation have organized a definitive knowledge resource for this growing and complex field by assembling many of the world leaders in basic neuroscience, electrical engineering and drug infusion technologies, and clinical investigation. Any new paradigm in medicine, such as neuromodulation, deserves such an outstanding text to help the clinician and researcher to navigate through novel concepts, clinical outcomes and promising new applications." -Richard E. Kuntz, M.D., M.Sc., Sr. Vice President and President, Medtronic Neuromodulation, Minneapolis, USA

    "As it has become possible to directly interact with neural tissue, neuromodulation as a new and very promising field of therapeutic approaches has emerged on a very steep path of development. Since the first applications to the treatment of pain with electrical stimulation numerous newly developed methods, including direct electrical stimulation and drug infusion, targeting neural tissue from the cortex to the basal ganglia, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves have made it possible to develop new very powerful therapeutic approaches to serious clinical conditions. Every new branch soon produces its own ramifications and the neuromodulation looks like a very fast-growing tree. This timely publication provides a global and comprehensive review of the current state of the art technology from new and exciting perspectives. This book will be a milestone in the development of neuromodulation." - Alim Louis Benabid, Member Institut Universitaire de France, French Academy of Sciences, French Academy of Medicine, Royal Academy of Medicine of Belgium, Professor Emeritus of Biophysics at the Joseph Fourier University in Grenoble, Scientific Advisor at French Atomic Energy Commission, Grenoble, France

    "Neuromodulation therapy has advanced dramatically in recent years and promises to grow into a multi-indication modality that will help millions who suffer from chronic pain and other - neurological diseases.…As, the awareness, acceptance, and use of Neuromodulation technologies grow, the thoughtful publication and updating of reference books like Neuromodulation will play a vital role in the sharing of knowledge and best practices, enabling the modality to reach its full clinical potential.…This book draws from the giants of Neuromodulation who have contributed greatly to the field’s expansion. It broadly captures the wisdom of many talented and caring people and shares it with the world. We will use this book and its future updates as a core resource to further strengthen our educational programs. I thank the editors and authors for their vision and ambitious efforts in making this important book a reality." - Christopher G. Chavez, President, Neuromodulation Division, St. Jude Medical, St. Paul, USA

    "Scientific progress is accelerated when ground breaking developments are put into context for the next generation to explore. The editors of Neuromodulation have assembled a foundation of evidence that will spur the curious minds of scientists, clinicians, researchers and industry. This document will lead to new discoveries that reinforce the spirit of innovation and challenge our current beliefs. Congratulations to the authors and editors on assembling a reference for the ages." - Michael Onuscheck, Senior Vice President and President of Neuromodulation, Boston Scientific Corporation, Boston, USA


  • Prolog (Joseph Pancrazio)SECTION I AN INTRODUCTION TO NEUROMODULATIONIntroductionElliot S. Krames1 What Is Neuromodulation?Elliot S. Krames, Ali R. Rezai, P. Hunter Peckham, and Farag Aboelsaad2 Neuromodulation: A Historical PerspectivePhilip L. Gildenberg3 Neuromodulation Technologies: Whom Do We Serve?Allen R. Dyer and Mary Pat Aardrup4 Challenges in Moving Toward Product DevelopmentPaul Meadows5 The Birth of an IndustryJames Cavuoto6 Beginnings of the SocietiesRoss Davis, Philip L. Gildenberg, Giancarlo Barolat, Elliot Krames, Dejan Popovic, and Paul Meadows7 Clinical Study DesignDaniel B. Carr and Anthony Eidelman 8 Psychological Issues and Evaluation for Patients Undergoing Implantable TechnologyDaniel M. Doleys9 Deep Brain Stimulation: Ethical Issues in Clinical Practice and Neurosurgical ResearchJoseph J. FinsSECTION II FUNDAMENTALS OF NEUROMODULATIONIntroductionNarendra Bhadra, J. Thomas Mortimer, and Hunter Peckham10 Anatomy of the Nervous SystemJoshua M. Rosenow11 Fundamentals of Electrical StimulationJ. Thomas Mortimer and Narendra Bhadra12 Neuromodulation and Neuronal PlasticityAlon Y. Mogilner13 Gene-Based NeuromodulationThais Federici, Jonathan Riley, and Nicholas BoulisSECTION IIA MECHANISMSIntroduction14 Principals of Electric Field Generation for Stimulation of the Central Nervous SystemWarren M. Grill15 Mechanisms of Action of Deep Brain Stimulation: A ReviewKendall Lee, Charles Blaha, and Jonathan M. Bledsoe16 Computational Modeling of Deep Brain StimulationCameron C. McIntyreSECTION III BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING CONSIDERATIONSIntroductionJoseph Pancrazio and Hunter Peckham17 Electrodes for the Neural InterfaceDustin J. Tyler and Katharine H. Polasek18 Implantable Neural StimulatorsP. Hunter Peckham and D. Michael Ackermann, Jr19 Designing a Neural Interface System to Restore MobilityJohn P. Donoghue and Leigh Hochberg20 MRI Safety and Neuromodulation SystemsFrank G. ShellockSECTION IV NEUROMODULATION FOR PAINIntroductionElliot S. Krames and Andre Machado21 Physiology and Pathophysiology of Chronic PainJoshua M. Rosenow22 The Endogenous Neuromodulation SystemAllan I. Basbaum, Joao Braz, Michael H. Ossipov and Frank Porreca23 Management Strategies for Chronic PainRollin M. GallagherSection IVA Intrathecal TherapiesIntroduction 24 Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS): A ReviewKathleen Sluka, Howard S. Smith and Deirdre M. Walsh25 Mechanisms of Spinal Cord Stimulation in Neuropathic and Ischemic Pain SyndromesBengt Linderoth, Robert D. Foreman, Björn A. Meyerson26 The Cost-Effectiveness of Spinal Cord StimulationRichard B. North, Jane Shipley and Rod S. Taylor27 SCS for Painful NeuropathiesGiancarlo Barolat28 Neurostimulation in the Treatment of Complex Regional Pain SyndromeJoshua P. Prager29 Peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) for Pain Peripheral Neuralgia and CRPSMichael Stanton-Hicks30 Occipital Neurostimulation (ONS) for Treatment of Intractable Headache SyndromesRichard L. Weiner and Kenneth M. Alo`31 Subcutaneous Targeted StimulationTeodor Goroszeniuk and Sandesha KothariSection IVB Neuromodulation for PainIntroduction 32 Relevant Anatomy for Spinal DeliveryTimothy R Deer, Matthew Ranson and Douglas Stewart33 The Rational Use of Intrathecal Opioid AnalgesicsElliot S. Krames and Mouchir Harb34 Intrathecal Analgesics, Choice of SystemMarshall D. Bedder35 Intrathecal Non-Opioid Analgesics for the Control of PainEnrique Reig, David Abejón, and Elliot S. Krames36 Compounding Intrathecal DrugsRichard L. Rauck 37 Intracerebroventricular Opioid Administration for Chronic PainKatherine E. Groothuis and Robert M. LevySection IVC Intracranial Procedures for Chronic PainIntroduction 38 Deep Brain Stimulation for PainErlick A.C. Pereira, Sarah L.F. Owen, Alexander L. Green and Tipu Z. Aziz39 Deep-Brain Stimulation of the Posterior Hypothalamus in Chronic Cluster HeadacheA. Franzini, G. Messina, M. Leone, G. Bussone, C. Marras, G. Tringali and G. Broggi40 Motor Cortex Stimulation for the Treatment of Neuropathic PainJ.P. Nguyen, J.P. Lefaucheur, S. Raoul, V. Roualdes, Y. Péréon, and Y. KeravelSECTION V - Movement Disorders41 Movement Disorders: Anatomy and Physiology Relevant to Deep Brain StimulationBrian Harris Kopell, Gregory F. Molnar and Bradley Hiner42 Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson’s DiseaseKarl Sillay and Philip Starr43 Deep Brain Stimulation for TremorAdam P. Burdick, Michael S. Okun and Kelly D. Foote44 Infusion Therapy for Movement DisordersJoseph C. Hsieh and Richard D. Penn45 Deep Brain Stimulation for Torsion DystoniaRon L. Alterman and Michele Tagliati46 Deep Brain Stimulation in Tourette SyndromeVeerle Visser-Vandewalle, Yasin Temel and Linda Ackermans47 Surgical Management of Hemifacial Spasm and Meige SyndromeHyun Ho Jung and Jin Woo Chang48 Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) of the Medial Thalamus for Movement Disorders: The role of the Centromedianum - Parafascicular complexPaolo Mazzone, E Scarnati and G Della MarcaSECTION VI NEUROSTIMULATION FOR EPILEPSYIntroductionAsh Sharan and Ali Rezai49 Epilepsy: Anatomy, Physiology, Pathophysiology and DisordersDavid King-Stephens50 Vagus Nerve StimulationArun Paul Amar, Michael L. Levy, Charles Y. Liu and Michael L.J. Apuzzo51 Deep Brain Stimulation for EpilepsyCasey H. Halpern, Uzma Samadani, Brian Litt, Jurg L. Jaggi and Gordon H. Baltuch52 Cerebellar Stimulation for EpilepsySteven Falowksi, Ashwini D. Sharan, Amanda Celii and Ross Davis53 Closed Loop Stimulation in the Control of Focal EpilepsyJ. Smith, K. Fountas, M. Murro, Y. Park, P. Jenkins, D. Greene and R. EstellerSECTION VII Neuromodulation in PsychiatryIntroductionBenjamin D. Greenberg54 Electroconvulsive Therapy, Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, and Vagus Nerve Stimulation for DepressionLinda L Carpenter,, Margaret C. Wyche, Gerhard M. Friehs and John O’Reardon55 Electrical brain stimulation in treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder: parcellation, and cyto- and chemoarchitecture of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, a reviewKris van Kuyck, Loes Gabriëls, and Bart Nuttin56 Deep brain stimulation for highly refractory depressionBenjamin D. Greenberg57 Surgical Treatment for Refractory Drug AddictionsBomin Sun, Shikun Zhan, Dianyou Li, and Hemmings WuSECTION VIII NEUROMODULATION FOR FUNCTIONAL RESTORATIONIntroductionP. Hunter Peckham58 Stimulation for the Return of HearingBlake S. Wilson and Michael F. Dorman59 The Development of Visual Prosthetic Devices to Restore Vision to the BlindMuhammad Memon and Joseph F. Rizzo III60 Stimulation for Return of Function after StrokeJohn Chae, Jayme Knutson and Lynne Sheffler61 Cortical Stimulation for the Treatment of Motor Deficits following Ischemic StrokeJanna Silverstein and Robert M. Levy62 Stimulation for Return of Upper and Lower Extremity FunctionKevin L. Kilgore, Michael W. Keith and P. Hunter Peckham63 A Neural Prosthesis for Obstructive Sleep ApneaDominique M. DurandSECTION IX NEUROMODULATION FOR ORGAN SYSTEMSIntroductionElliot S. Krames64 Neuronal Control of the Heart: NeuromodulationJeffrey L. Ardell and Robert D. Foreman65 Disorders of PacingThomas Dresing66 Cardiac Pacemakers - Past, Present, and FutureGuy Amit and Kara J. Quan67 Cardiac DefibrillatorsThomas Dresing68 SCS for Peripheral Vascular DisordersSvante Horsch and Stefan Schulte69 Spinal Cord Stimulation for Refractory AnginaMike J.L. DeJongste and Robert D. Foreman70 Neuromodulation and HypertensionT.M. Mastracci and R.K. Greenberg71 Neuromodulation of Cardiac DysfunctionSandra Machado, Kwangdeok Lee and Marc S. Penn72 Neural Control of the ColonBeverley Greenwood-Van Meerveld and Robert D. Foreman73 Spinal Cord Stimulation for Gastrointestinal Painful DisordersLeonardo Kapural74 Gastric Stimulation for Dysmotility Disorders and ObesityCristian Sevcencu75 Intestinal Electrical Stimulation: Methodologies, Effects, Mechanisms,and ApplicationsJieyun Yin and Jiande D Z Chen76 Neurophysiology of the Genitourinary OrgansWilliam C. de Groat and Firouz Daneshgari77 Sacral Nerve Root Stimulation for Painful Bladder Syndrome/Interstitial CystitisAdnan A. Al-Kaisy and K. Riaz Khan78 Neuromodulation for Voiding DysfunctionSarah McAchran, Raymond Rackley and Sandip VasavadaSECTION X NEUROMODULATION FOR EMERGING APPLICATIONSIntroductionElliot S. Krames and Ali Rezai79 Deep Brain Stimulation for ObesityMichael Y. Oh80 Deep Brain Stimulation for Blood Pressure ControlErlick A.C. Pereira, Alexander L. Green and Tipu Z. Aziz81 TinnitusBrian Harris Kopell and David Friedland82 Brain and Cerebrospinal Fluid Infusion Therapies for the Treatment of CNS DiseaseDaniel J. Abrams83 Deep Brain Stimulation for Cognitive NeuromodulationNicholas D. Schiff84 Novel Neuromodulation Approaches for Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Neurodegenerative ConditionsJulie G. Pilitsis and Roy A.E. BakaySECTION XI TECHNIQUES FOR IMPLANTATIONIntroductionElliot S. Krames85 Deep Brain Stimulation: Surgical TechniqueAndre G Machado, Alon Y. Mogilner and Ali Rezai86 Spinal Cord Stimulation: Placement of Surgical Leads via Laminotomy - Techniques and BenefitsKrishna Kumar, Goran Lind, Jaleh Winter, Shivani Gupta, Sharon Bishop and Bengt Linderoth87 Peripheral Nerve StimulationMichael Stanton-Hicks88 Subcutaneous Peripheral Nerve Field Stimulation for Intractable PainGiancarlo Barolat89 Surgical Placement of Occipital LeadsRichard L. Weiner90 Surgical Technique: Intrathecal Medication Delivery System ImplantationJoshua M. Rosenow91 The Surgical Technique of Vagus Nerve Stimulator ImplantationJeffrey W. CozzensAppendices


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