Nano and Micro Engineered Membrane Technology


  • CJM van Rijn, General Manager Aquamarijn Research BV, The Netherlands

This book is about Nano and micro engineered membrane technology, an emerging new technological area in membrane technology. Potential applications cover a broad spectrum of science, such as micro and nano filtration, gas separation, optics and nanophotonics, catalysis, microbiology, controlled drug delivery, nanopatterning, micro contact printing, atomisation, cross flow emulsification, etc. A brief overview of filtration membranes and pore structures is presented in chapter 1 and in the subsequent chapter 2 an overview is presented of conventional micro perforation methods, like laser drilling, electroforming, precision etching etc. With micro engineering techniques (chapter 3), originating from the semiconductor industry, it is relatively easy to downscale and form submicron pores (down to 100 nm) using photolithographic methods, with e.g. contact masks and wafer steppers. In chapter 4 some elementary fluid mechanics related to fluid flow in conducts and single and multiple orifices is presented covering analytical methods as well as computational fluid dynamics. Much effort has been put in strength and maximum pressure load analysis (chapter 5) of perforated and unperforated membranes. New analytical expressions were obtained that were verified by a number of computer simulations and many experiments. A separate chapter (chapter 6) has been devoted to the pioneering work of manufacturing polymeric perforated membranes because of its potential future economical impact. Large scale microfiltration applications on e.g. skim milk and lager beer are presented in chapter 7, whereas in chapter 8 a micro scale Lab-on-a-Chip microfiltration/fractionation demonstrator is discussed.Nanotechnology and nano engineered membranes is the fascinating topic of chapter 9, with typical examples as nanopatterning, nanophotonics and nanomembrane technology. This book closes with novel pioneering applications on atomization (chapter 10) for deep pulmonary inhale and cross flow emulsification (chapter 11) for the manufacturing of e.g. functional foods and nano/micro emulsions.
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Industry consultants and individual scientists in the area of chemical engineering, physical chemistry, membrane technology, and material science.


Book information

  • Published: February 2004
  • Imprint: ELSEVIER
  • ISBN: 978-0-444-51489-9


"This book gives an excellent overview of production methods and applications of micro-(and nano-) engineered membranes, and addresses a large auditorium with interest and background in materials technology."
Christian Simon, SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, Norway, MICROPOROUS AND MESOPOROUS MATERIALS, Vol. 75, 2005

Table of Contents

Overview Membrane Technology
Membrane Processes
• Filtration through size exclusion
• Separation by solution-diffusion process
• Separation by charge
Membrane Structures
• Ceramic membranes
• Polymeric membranes
• Nanocomposite membranes
• Other membrane structures

Microperforation Methods
Wet etching of perforations in metal foils
Electroforming of perforations
Electro perforation
Laser cutting and drilling of perforations
Hot embossing

Micro Engineered Membranes
Introduction micro engineering
MEMS Silicon micro engineering
Micro engineered unperforated membranes
Micro engineered perforated membranes
Semiconductor lithography
Laser interference lithography
• Device fabrication with short exposure time
• Short versus long exposure times
Fabrication of microsieves with silicon wafers
• Wet etching through the pores
• Silicon Wafers

Fluid Mechanics
Fluid flow through a channel and an orifice
Flow through rectangular and circular orifices

Membrane Deflection and Maximum Pressure Load
Analytical pressure load expressions
Perforated membranes and maximum pressure load

Polymeric Membranes
Photolithographic polyimide membranes
Hot moulding techniques
Phase separation micro moulding
• Moulding of micro array and a microwell
• Flat sheet and tubular polymeric structures
• Capillary polymeric structures

Microfiltration Cross flow microfiltration of large particles
Cross flow microfiltration of polydisperse suspensions
Microfiltration of lager beer
Micro filtration and fractionation of milk
Microfiltration of blood-cell concentrates
Microscreens for rapid microbiological detection

Lab and Fab-on-a-Chip
Lab-on-a-Chip for particle fractionation
Fab-on-a-Chip for de-hydrogenation process

Nanotechnology and Nano Engineered Membranes
Introduction Nanotechnology
Zeolites, self assembled molecular sieves
• Molecular sieves on siliconnitride membranes Patterning of nanostructures
• Stencilling with nanosieves
Nanosieves for Photonic Structures
• Silicon nitride photonic crystals
• Alumina photonic crystals
Nano membrane separation technology
Nano engineered biomembranes
• Biosensors Nanotubes
• Carbon nanotubes
• Templated nanotubes and nanofiltration
• Nano printing and etching

Introduction theory
Atomisation with micro machined nozzles

Membrane Emulsification
CFD and membrane emulsification
Analytical cross-flow emulsification model