Myofascial Trigger Points book cover

Myofascial Trigger Points

Comprehensive diagnosis and treatment

Paperback, 584 Pages

Published: May 2013

Imprint: Churchill Livingstone

ISBN: 978-0-7020-4312-3

Contents

  • Section 1 The background

    1 Guide to the book

    2 Terminology

    3 Epidemiology

    3.1 Etiology of disease

    3.2 Epidemiology

    4 Etiology of myofascial pain syndrome

    4.1 Causative factors

    4.2 Perpetuating factors of myofascial pain

    4.3 Chronification of myofascial pain

    5 The anatomy and physiology of the muscles

    5.1 Macroscopic construction

    5.2 Function

    5.3 Neurophysiology

    6 Pathophysiology

    6.1 Historical development

    6.2 Underlying theories of pathophysiology

    6.3 Specific pathophysiology

    6.4 The extended integrated hypothesis

    7 The trigger point as expression of a functional disorder of the locomotor system

    7.1 The function of the locomotor system in association with memory

    7.2 Pathophysiological role of mTrP

    8 Trigger points and myofascial pain - acupuncture points and meridian system

    8.1 Trigger points and acupuncture points

    8.2 Referred pain and meridians

    8.3 Other study results

    8.4 Pain and somatovisceral correspondence of trigger and acupuncture points

    8.5 Summary 

    9 Myofascial trigger points and fascia

    9.1 Anatomy - definitions

    9.2 Biomechanical function

    9.3 Muscle hardening (taut bands)

    9.4 Fascia as sensory organ

    9.5 Association with trigger points - therapeutic considerations

    10 Fibromyalgia syndrome

    11 Myofascial trigger points and somatoform pain

    11.1 Introduction and clinical information

    11.2 Epidemiology

    11.3 Etiology and pathogenesis

    11.4 Differential diagnosis 

    11.5 Therapy 

    11.6 Health service assessment

    12 Integrated holistic consideration of the muscles

    12.1 Introduction 

    12.2 Function and purpose of the muscles

    12.3 Approach via acupuncture

    13 Diagnosis of myofascial pain

    13.1 Principles 

    13.2 Questioning

    13.3 Physical examination

    13.4 Specific diagnosis of myofascial trigger points  

    13.5 Technical test procedures

    13.6 Creating a comprehensive diagnosis with instructions for treatment

    14 Differential diagnosis 

    14.1 Differential diagnosis according to affected structure and cause

    14.2 Differential diagnosis depending on distribution pattern

    Section 2 Treatment of myofascial pain

    15 Principles of treatment

    15.1 Doctor-patient relationship

    15.2 Practical hints

    15.3 Legal aspects

    15.4 Documentation of progress

    16 Peculiarities of doctor-patient relationship with chronic pain

    17 Selection of suitable treatments

    17.1 Standard treatments

    17.2 Other (traditional) treatments

    18 Manual therapies and physiotherapeutic procedures

    18.1 Dejung manual trigger point therapy

    18.2 Lewit treatment techniques

    18.3 Spray and stretch, cool and extend

    18.4 Fascia techniques for the treatment of mTrP

    19 Treatment concept - myofascial trigger point therapy

    19.1 Manual techniques and dry needling

    19.2 Extension, relaxation/stretching, detensioning

    19.3 Functional training, ergonomics

    20 Physical procedures

    20.1 Ultrasound therapy

    20.2 Hot and cold treatments

    20.3 Electrotherapy

    20.4 Cupping

    20.5 Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation

    20.6 Laser therapy

    20.7 Shock wave therapy

    21 Trigger point infiltration

    21.1 Indications and contraindications

    21.2 Injectants

    21.3 Technique

    22 Acupuncture and related procedures

    22.1 Dry needling (trigger point acupuncture)

    22.2 Classical acupuncture

    22.3 Kiiko Matsumoto acupuncture

    22.4 Microsystem acupunture

    22.5 Electrostimulation acupuncture

    22.6 Laser acupuncture

    22.7 Preusser gelopuncture

    22.8 Tuina

    23 Complementary and alternative therapy methods and naturopathic treatments

    23.1 Definitions

    23.2 Basic principles

    23.3 Treatment procedures

    23.4 Integration of complementary and alternative methods in multimodal pain programme

    24 Relaxation techniques - body and mind

    24.1 Preliminary remarks

    24.2 Western relaxation techniques

    24.3 Eastern relaxation techniques

    25 Systemic pharmacotherapy

    25.1 Introduction

    25.2 Substance groups

    25.3 Treatment strategy

    Section 3 Muscles and trigger points

    26 Head

    26.1 M. masseter

    26.2 M. temporalis

    26.3 M. pterygoideus medialis

    26.4 M. pterygoideus lateralis

    26.5 M. digastricus

    26.6 M. stylohyoideus

    26.7 M. mylohyoideus

    26.8 M. geniohyoideus

    27 Throat, neck and shoulder region

    27.1 M. splenius capitis

    27.2 M. splenius cervicis

    27.3 Muscles of the cervical M. erector trunci

    27.4 Suboccipital muscles

    27.5 M. sternocleidomastoideus

    27.6 Mm. scaleni

    27.7 M. trapezius

    27.8 M. levator scapulae

    28 Shoulder and upper arm

    28.1 M. deltoideus

    28.2 M. supraspinatus

    28.3 M. infraspinatus

    28.4 M. teres minor

    28.5 M. latissimus dorsi

    28.6 M. teres major

    28.7 M. subscapularis

    28.8 Mm. rhomboidei major and minor

    28.9 M. coracobrachialis

    28.10 M. biceps brachii

    28.11 M. brachialis

    28.12 M. triceps brachii (with M. anconaeus)

    29 Elbow, forearm and hand

    29.1 Hand extensors

    29.2 M. brachioradialis

    29.3 Finger extensors

    29.4 M. supinator

    29.5 M. palmaris longus

    29.6 Hand and finger flexors in the forearm

    29.7 M. adductor et opponens pollicis

    30 Thoracic spine and thorax

    30.1 Thoracic autochtonous back extensors

    30.2 M. pectoralis major

    30.3 M. pectoralis minor

    30.4 M. sternalis

    30.5 M. serratus posterior superior

    30.6 M. serratus anterior

    30.7 M. serratus posterior inferior

    31 Abdomen

    31.1 M. rectus abdominis

    31.2 M. obliquus abdominis (externus et internus)

    31.3 M. pyramidalis

    32 Lumbar spine, pelvis and hip region (pelvic girdle)

    32.1 Lumbar autochthonous back muscles

    32.2 M. quadratus lumborum

    32.3 M. iliopsoas major

    32.4 Pelvic floor muscles

    32.5 M. gluteus maximus

    32.6 M. gluteus medius

    32.7 M. gluteus minimus

    32.8 M. piriformis

    33 Hip, thigh and knee

    33.1 M. tensor fasciae latae

    33.2 Adductors of the hip joint.

    33.3 M. quadriceps femoris

    33.4 Ischiocrural muscles

    33.5 M. popliteus

    34 Lower leg and foot

    34.1 M. tibialis anterior

    34.2 Mm. peronei (fibulares) longus et brevis

    34.3 M. gastrocnemius

    34.4 M. soleus

    34.5 M. tibialis posterior

    34.6 M. extensor hallucis longus and extensor digitorum longus

    34.7 M. flexor digitorum longus and flexor hallucis longus

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