Microbial Forensics book cover

Microbial Forensics

Microbial Forensics describes the new and growing field of Microbial Forensics- the science that will help bring to justice criminals and terrorists who use biological material to cause harm. This book describes the foundation of the field of microbial forensics and will serve as a basic primer to initiate those scientists and officials that have an interest in the topic. It covers a variety of areas from forensic science, to microbiology, to epidemiology, to bioinformatics, and to legal issues.

Audience
Microbiologists, forensic scientists, virologists, government laboratories,pharmaceutical companies and public health specialists

Hardbound, 448 Pages

Published: May 2005

Imprint: Academic Press

ISBN: 978-0-12-088483-4

Reviews

  • "The editors have gathered an impressive array of experts and present 18 chapters that give the reader both an overview of microbial forensics and fairly intricate details regarding different aspects of the field. ...contains a good amount of interesting information regarding the application of forensic science to biological crimes and bioterrorist events." - CLINICAL INFECTIONS DISEASES (January 2005)

Contents


  • Contributors

    Foreword

    Preface

    Acknowledgments

    1 Microbial Forensics

    Introduction

    The Threat

    History

    Forensic Science

    Defining the Microbial Forensics Program

    Carrying Out a Successful Microbial Forensics Program

    SWGMGF

    Epidemiology (A First Step in a Microbial Forensic Analysis)

    Microbial Forensic Tools

    Bioinformatics and Genetics

    Forensic Case Examples

    Education

    Conclusion

    Acknowledgment

    References

    2 Infectious Diseases: Not Just a Health Matter Anymore

    Introduction

    Infectious Disease: The Classic Health Viewpoint

    Infectious Disease: The Offensive Biological Weapons Viewpoint

    Infectious Disease: New Players and New Threats

    Infectious Disease: What Are the Threats

    Infectious Disease: Biosafety and Biosecurity

    References

    3 The Fundamentals of Human Virology

    Introduction

    An Overview of the DNA Viruses

    An Overview of the RNA Viruses

    Positive-sense RNA Viruses

    Negative-sense Single-Stranded RNA Viruses

    Segmented RNA Viruses and the Retroviridae

    The Application of Molecular Forensics and Epidemiology to Viral Infections

    References

    4 Keeping Track of Viruses

    Introduction

    What Is a Virus? Basic Virology

    Virus Lifecycle

    Virus Classification

    Generation of Viral Diversity

    Introduction to Viral Kinetics and Outcome

    How Do You Identify a Virus

    Examples of Naturally Emerging Viruses

    Viral Forensics

    Engineering Novel Viruses

    Determining the Source of an Engineered Virus

    Conclusion

    Acknowledgments

    References

    5 Bacterial Pathogens

    DNA Regions of Value for Forensic Identification of Bacterial Pathogens

    Bacterial Pathogens of Concern

    References

    6 Biology and Detection of Fungal Pathogens of Humans and Plants

    Introduction

    Classification, Nomenclature, and Taxonomy of Fungi

    Growth Habit and Reproduction

    Pathogenicity

    Epidemiology

    Detection and Identification

    References

    7 Forensic Aspects of Biologic Toxins

    Introduction 131

    Botulinum Neurotoxin and Botulism

    Ricin

    Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B

    Clostridia perfringens Epsilon Toxin

    Summary

    References

    8 Epidemiologic Investigation for Public Health, Biodefense, and Forensic Microbiology

    Introduction

    Dynamics of Disease Transmission

    Outbreak Investigation

    Deliberate Introduction of a Biological Agent

    Molecular Strain Typing

    Summary

    References

    9 Molecular Epidemiology and Forensics of RNA Viruses

    Challenges Posed by RNA Viruses

    A Case Study: Foot-and-Mouth Disease in the United Kingdom, 2001

    What Needs To Be Done

    References

    10 Investigation of Suspicious Disease Outbreaks

    Natural and Deliberate Disease

    Importance of Disease Surveillance

    Global Disease Reporting Systems

    U.S. Disease Surveillance and Reporting Systems

    Epidemiologic Investigation

    Composition of an Outbreak Investigation Team

    Epidemiologic Analysis

    Evaluation of Clinical Findings

    Investigation of Animal Disease Outbreaks

    Investigation of Crop Disease Outbreaks

    Specimen Collection

    Environmental Sampling

    Sample Handling

    Specimen Storage

    Laboratory Analysis

    Serology

    Evaluation of the Etiologic Agent

    Analysis of Meteorological and Climatic Conditions

    Economic Analysis

    Media Reports

    Available Documents

    Evaluation of Scientific Literature

    Training or Work Experience

    Equipment or Potential Means of Delivery

    Summary

    References

    11 Forensic Handling of Biological Threat Samples in the Lab

    Introduction

    Use of Test Plans to Implement Operational Strategies

    Biological and Physical Integrity of a Sample

    Legal Concerns for Sample Handling and Data Records

    Safety Issues

    Sample Shipping Regulations

    CDC/NIH Regulations

    References

    12 Forensic Genetic Analysis of Microorganisms: Overview of Some Important Technical Concepts and Selected Genetic Typing Methods

    Introduction

    Useful Definitions and Concepts

    Taxonomy and Epidemiology

    Genetic Considerations

    Restriction Endonucleases and Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Of Dendrograms and Phylogenetic Trees

    Molecular Genetic Techniques for Strain Typing

    Multilocus Sequence Typing

    Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Typing

    PCR-Based Genetic Typing

    Viruses and Fungi

    Conclusions

    References

    13 Non-DNA Methods for Biological Signatures

    Introduction

    Intrinsic Molecular Properties: Fingerprints

    A Multidisciplinary Approach to Biological Signatures

    Overview of Characterization Techniques

    Individual Methods in Detail

    Results: Analysis of Bacillus globigii Spore Samples

    Discussion and Future Directions

    References

    14 Microbial Forensics Host Factors

    General Concepts

    Utility of Serologic Analysis of People Exposed to Anthrax:

    Strengths and Limitations

    Considerations and Concerns Raised by Analysis of Other Infections

    Possible Scenarios of Bioterrorism Attacks: Distinguishing

    Victims from Perpetrators

    References

    15 Bioinformatics Methods for Microbial Detection and Forensic Diagnostic Design

    A Working Definition of Bioinformatics

    An Overview of Microbial Diagnostics

    Detection Diagnostics

    Nucleic Acid Detection Diagnostics

    Chemistries for Nucleic Acid Detection

    Protein Detection Diagnostics

    Monoclonal Antibody

    High-Affinity Ligands

    Forensic Diagnostics

    Large-Scale, Chip-Based Techniques

    Protein Forensic Diagnostics

    Genome Sequencing and Analysis Techniques

    Basecalling and Accuracy

    Draft versus Finished

    Strategies for Bacterial and Viral Sequencing

    Assembly

    Annotation

    Tools for Annotation

    Annotation for Diagnostics versus Traditional Genomic Annotation

    Comparative Genomics

    Pairwise Comparison and Alignment

    Multisequence and Multigenome Alignment

    Common Substring Comparison

    Comparative Genomic Tools

    Protein Structure

    Tools for Protein Structure Modeling

    Tools for Protein Structure Analysis

    Visualization

    Other Forensic Techniques

    Protein Mass Spectrometer Analysis

    Image Analysis

    Examples

    Anthracis Analysis

    Nucleic Acid Signature Pipeline

    Determination of Target Pathogen Consensus Sequence

    Fast, Scalable Sequence Comparison Programs to Locate Unique Sequence

    Primer and Probe Selection and Acceptance

    Protein Signature Pipeline

    Acknowledgments

    References

    16 Population Genetics of Bacteria in a Forensic Context

    Introduction

    DNA Forensics of Humans and Bacteria

    Case Study of Bacillus anthracis

    Conclusions

    Recommendations

    Acknowledgments

    References

    17 Quality Management in Forensics Laboratories

    Laboratory Quality Management

    A Few Definitions Are in Order at This Point

    Laboratory Accreditation

    Validation of Laboratory Tests

    Proficiency Testing

    Quality Control Testing

    Quality Assurance Monitoring

    Competency Assessment of Laboratory Employees

    Procedure Manuals

    Laboratory Reports

    Laboratory Records

    Laboratory Security

    Conclusions

    Bibliography

    18 Admissibility Standards for Scientific Evidence

    Legal Admissibility

    Background to the Daubert Decision

    Analysis of the Daubert Decision

    The DNA Admissibility Litigation

    Fingerprint Admissibility Litigation Under Daubert

    Observations

    References

    Appendix

    Quality Assurance Guidelines for Laboratories Performing Microbial Forensic Work

    Subject Index


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