Know and Understand Centrifugal Pumps book cover

Know and Understand Centrifugal Pumps

Pumps are commonly encountered in industry and are essential to the smooth running of many industrial complexes. Mechanical engineers entering industry often have little practical experience of pumps and their problems, and need to build up an understanding of the design, operation and appropriate use of pumps, plus how to diagnose faults and put them right. This book tackles all these aspects in a readable manner, drawing on the authors' long experience of lecturing and writing on centrifugal pumps for industrial audiences.

Mechanical engineers, fitters and maintenance engineers.

Hardbound, 264 Pages

Published: July 2003

Imprint: Elsevier

ISBN: 978-1-85617-409-1


  • Chapter 1: Basic Pump Principles
    How do pumps work?
    Pressure measurement
    Atmospheric pressure (ATM)
    Absolute pressure (psia)
    Gauge pressure (psig)
    Pump head
    Specific gravity
    Pressure measurement
    Pressures inside the pump

    Chapter 2: NPSH, Net Positive Suction Head
    Definition of NPSHr (required)
    Definition NPSHa (available)

    Chapter 3: Cavitation
    Vapor pressure
    The effects of vapor pressure on pump performance
    Cavitation: A practical discussion
    Review for preventing cavitation
    Cavitation review
    Do something about cavitation!

    Chapter 4: The Affinity Laws
    The Laws
    The Affinity Laws and the impeller diameter
    What's the practical application of these laws?

    Chapter 5: Useful Work and Pump Efficiency
    Useful work from a pump
    Flow determination
    Pump efficiency
    Factors that affect the efficiency
    Calculating pump efficiency

    Chapter 6: Pump Classification
    Positive displacement pumps
    Centrifugal pumps
    Conceptual difference
    Centrifugal volate pumps
    Types of centrifugal pumps
    Overhung impeller
    Impeller between the bearings
    Turbine pumps
    Specific duty pumps
    The typical ANSI pump
    API (American Petroleum Institute) pumps
    Vertical turbine pumps
    Non-metalic pumps
    Magnetic drive pumps
    Canned motor pumps
    Pump impellers
    Turbine impellers
    Conventional impellers
    Suction specific speed, Nss
    Open impellers
    Semi open impeller
    Totally enclosed impeller
    Wer bands
    Specific speed, Ns

    Chapter 7: Understanding Pump Curves
    Pump performance curves
    Head versus pressure
    Pump efficiency
    The energy (BHp) curve
    The pump's minimum requirements (NPSH)
    Special design pumps
    Family curves

    Chapter 8: The System Curve
    The system controls the pump
    The elements of the Total Dynamic Head (TDH)
    Determining the Hs
    Determining the Hp
    Calculating the Hf and Hv
    The dynamic system
    Variable elevations
    The happy zone
    Dynamic pressures
    Variable resistances
    Short term reistance changes
    Long term reistance changes
    Pumps in parallel and pumps in series
    Pumps in parallel
    Three tips
    Pumps running in series
    Combined parallel and seris pump operation

    Chapter 9: Shaft Deflection
    Operation, design and maintenance
    Signs of shaft deflection
    Interpreting the evidence
    The sweet zone
    The dual volute pump

    Chapter 10: Pump and Motor Alignment
    Types of misalignment
    Alignment techniques
    Equipment alignment sequence
    Coupling alignment

    Chapter 11: Bearings
    Bearing lubrication
    Bearing failure
    Bearing maintenance
    Bearing seals

    Chapter 12: Pump Shaft Packing
    Vegetable fibers
    Reciprocating action
    Rotary action
    Synthetic fibers
    Compression packing
    The lantern ring
    The packing lubricant
    Stages in the life of packing

    Chapter 13: Mechanical Seals
    Pump packing
    The mechanical seal
    The single, unbalance, insider mounted mechanical seal
    The single, outside-mounted, unbalanced seal
    The single, balanced, internal mechanical seal
    The single, balanced, external mechanical seal
    Advantages of o-rings
    The balance effect
    Advantages of balance
    Balance explained by math
    Cartridge mechanical seals
    Double seals
    The tandem dual seal
    The back-to-back double seal
    The fact-to-face dual seal
    Support systems for dual seals
    The thermal convection tank
    The turbo tank
    The pumping unit

    Chapter 14: Failure Analysis of Mechanical Seals
    Causes of premature seal failure
    O-ring (the elastomer) failure
    The elastomer sticks to the shaft
    The springs clog and jam
    The shaft frets under the shaft seal
    Incorrect installation dimension
    Environmental controls for difficult sealing applications
    Difficult pumping applications for mechanical seals
    Environmental control
    Proper pump repair alignment methods

    Chapter 15: Common Sense Failure Analysis
    Pump maintenance files
    Failure analysis on centrifugal pumps
    Why is this pump in the shop?

    Chapter 16: Avoiding Wear in Centrifugal Pumps
    Wear rings
    Fluid velocity accelerates wear

    Chapter 17: Pump Piping
    Piping design to drain tanks and sumps
    The Submergence Laws


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