# Kinematic Hydrology and Modelling

Requiring little mathematical background, the book provides tools for hydraulic engineers and hydrologists concerned with estimating catchment runoff and floods. It condenses widely spread research literature on the subject of kinematic hydrology and emphasizes basic principles so it should be of value to students and teachers in these areas. The book is comprehensive and yet written in a basic way enabling practitioners to pick out relevant sections and apply them to real problems. It also contains a valuable collection of charts and equations as well as simple computer programs for modelling catchment runoff and stream flow using the kinematic equations.A wide spectrum of hydrological processes can be analyzed using the kinematic equations. Overland flow, stream flow and even groundwater flow can be studied. A review of the assumptions behind the theory indicates where alternative equations are more accurate. The book thus provides tools for hydrological simulation, stormwater system design and catchment management. It will be particularly useful for professors and students in postgraduate and senior years in hydrology, and practicing engineers and hydrologists in stormwater, flood and water resources fields.

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Published: April 1986

Imprint: Elsevier

ISBN: 978-0-444-42616-1

## Contents

• 1. Introduction. Historical review. Classical hydrology. Hydrodynamic equations. Infiltration. 2. Analysis of Runoff. Introduction. Dynamic equations. Simplified equations. The kinematic equations. Kinematic flow over impermeable planes. Friction equation. 3. Hydrograph Shape and Peak Flows. Design parameters. Solution of kinematic equations for flow off a plane. Hydrographs for planes. Derivation of peak flow charts. Effect of canalization. Estimation of abstractions. 4. Kinematic Assumptions. Nature of kinematic equations. Kinematic approximation to overland flow. Kinematic and non-kinematic waves. Non-kinematic waves. Muskingum river routing. Kinematic and diffusion models. 5. Numerical Solutions. Methods of solution of equations of motion. Method of characteristics. Finite difference methods. Numerical solution. Accuracy and stability of numerical schemes. Effect of friction. Choosing an explicit finite difference scheme for the solution of the one-dimensional kinematic equations. 6. Dimensionless Hydrographs. Unit hydrographs. Development and use of graphs. Excess rainfall. Dimensionless equations. Use of dimensionless hydrographs. 7. Storm Dynamics and Distribution. Design practice. Storm patterns. Numerical models. Solutions for dynamic storms. 8. Conduit Flow. Kinematic equations for non-rectangular sections. Part-full circular pipes. Computer program for design of storm drain network. Trapezoidal channels. Comparison of kinematic and time-shift routing in conduits. 9. Urban Catchment Management. Effects of urbanization. Example: Calculation of peak runoff for various conditions. Detention storage. Channel storage. Kinematic equations for closed conduit systems. Computer program to simulate reservoir level variations in a pipe network. 10. Kinematic Modelling. Introduction. Stormwater modelling. Mathematical models. System definition. Terminology and definitions. Modelling approaches. Examples of parametric and deterministic models. Two-dimensional overland flow modelling. 11. Applications of Kinematic Modelling. Approaches. A model for urban watersheds. A model for rural watersheds. Overland flow and streamflow program. Real-time modelling. 12. Groundwater Flow. General comments. Flow in porous media. Differential equations in porous media. Analysis of subsurface flow. Flow in unsaturated zone. Flow in non-homogenous saturated zone. Author Index. Index