Inorganic Membranes: Synthesis, Characterization and Applications

Edited by

  • Reyes Mallada
  • Miguel Menéndez, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Zaragoza, Spain

The withstanding properties of inorganic membranes provide a set of tools for solving many of the problems that the society is facing, from environmental to energy problems and from water quality to more competitive industries. Such a wide variety of issues requires a fundamental approach, together with the precise description of applications provided by those researchers that have been close to the industrial applications. The contents of this book expand the lectures given in a Summer School of the European Membrane Society. They combine an easily accessible description of the technology, suitable for the graduate level, with the most advanced developments and the prospective of future applications. The large variety of membrane types makes almost compulsory to select a specialist for each of them, and this has been the approach selected in this book. In the case of porous membranes, the advances are related to the synthesis of microporous materials such as silica, carbon and zeolite membranes and hollow fibre membranes. A chapter covers the increasingly relevant hybrid membranes. Attention is also devoted to dense inorganic membranes, experiencing constantly improved properties. The applications of all these membranes are considered throughout the book.
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Book information

  • Published: March 2008
  • Imprint: ELSEVIER
  • ISBN: 978-0-444-53070-7

Table of Contents

1. Stability of porous ceramic membranes1. Introduction1.1. General considerations on porous ceramic membranes1.2. Stability of porous ceramic membranes2. Chemical Stability2.1. Background2.2. Experiments2.2.1. Membrane supports or macroporous membranes2.2.2. Mesoporous and microporous membranes3. Thermal Stability3.1. Background3.1.1. The sintering process3.1.2. Phase transformations3.1.3. Support3.2. Experiments3.2.1. Effect of the sintering process3.2.2. Effect of phase transformations3.2.3. Effect of the support3.2.4. Hydrothermal stability4. Resuming5. References2. Microporous silica membrane – basic principles and recent advances1. Introduction2. Specific properties of amorphous silica – comparison with other oxides3. Synthesis methods3.1. Sol-gel routes3.1.1. Conventional sol-gel routes3.1.2. Tailoring of the porosity in sol-gel derived membranes3.2. CVD routes3.2.1. Thermal CVD3.2.2. Plasma-enhanced CVD4. Design and performance of microporous silica membranes4.1. Silica membrane applications4.1.1. Pervaporation4.1.2. Gas separation4.2. Gas transport in almost dense silica membranes4.3. Membrane supports and intermediate layers4.4. Thermal stability of silica membranes on steam5. Conclusion6. References3. From polymeric precursors to hollow fibre carbon and ceramic membranesGeneral introduction1. Part 1: Polymeric precursors of hollow fibre carbon membranes1.1. Introduction1.2. Preparation of carbon membranes-A general process1.3. Precursor Selection1.4. Preparation of carbon hollow fibre membrane1.4.1. Preparation of hollow fibre membrane1.4.2. Stabilization Process1.5. Pyrolysis process1.6. Post treatment2. Part 2: Polymeric precursors of hollow fibre ceramic membranes2.1. Introduction2.2. Preparation of spinning suspension2.3. Spinning of ceramic hollow fibre precursors2.4. Sintering2.5. Example: Preparation of porous Al2O3 hollow fibre membranes3. References4. Organic-inorganic membranes1. Introduction2. Polymers with impermeable fillers2.1. Effect of the aspect ratio2.2. Effect of the surface chemistry2.2.1. Acidity2.2.2. Solubility / leaching out2.2.3. Adhesion2.3. Effect of the free volume3. Polymers with permeable filler: Mixed matrix membranes4. Organic-inorganic covalent network5. References5. Preparation and characterization of zeolite membranes1. Introduction1.1. What is different in a zeolite membrane?1.2. New zeolitic membrane materials1.3. Commercial aspects 2. Preparation of zeolite membranes by in situ liquid-phase hydrothermal synthesis2.1. Previous aspects2.2. The method3. Preparation of zeolite membranes by secondary (seeded) growth4. Preparation of membranes by the dry gel method5. Special issues5.1. Influence of the support5.2. Calcination5.3. Post-treatments5.4. Zoned or two-layered zeolite membranes6. Characterization7. Application of zeolite membranes7.1. Separation of mixtures7.2. Zeolite membrane reactors7.3. Zeolitic microreactors7.4. Zeolite-based sensors8. References6. Industrial applications of porous ceramic membranes (pressure-driven processes)1. Introduction. Pressure-driven membrane processes2. Porous ceramic membranes used in pressure-driven filtration3. Industrial applications of ceramic membranes3.1. Chemical/Petrochemical industry3.2. Metal/Mechanical/Automotive3.2.1. Recovery of cleaning alkaline solutions (and removal of oils)3.2.2. Further processing of membrane concentrates from oil/water emulsion filtration3.3. Textile/Pulp and Paper/Tannery3.4. Biotechnology, Cosmetic and Pharmaceutical Industries3.5. Food and beverages3.5.1. Juices and Wine3.5.2. Sugars and starch3.5.3. Sanitary conditions3.5.4. Beer production3.5.5. Dairy Products4. Ceramic membrane applications in water and wastewater treatment4.1. Water management in industry4.2. Secondary and tertiary waste water treatment4.3. Membrane Bioreactors (MBR)5. References 7. Pervaporation and gas separation using microporous membranes1. Introduction2. Types of microporous membranes2.1. Zeolite membranes2.2. Silica-based membranes3. Applications3.1. Gas separation3.2. Pervaporation4. Modelling of mass transport through microporous membranes5. Conclusions8. Synthesis, characterization and applications of palladium membranes1. Introduction2. Preparation of palladium-based membranes2.1. Dense palladium-based membranes2.2. Rolled Pd and Pd-Ag thin wall permeator tubes2.3. Palladium-based composite metal membranes2.4. Supported palladium-based membranes2.5. Laminated metal membranes2.6. Other studies on metal membranes2.7. Palladium-based composite porous membranes3. Characterization of palladium-based membranes3.1. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)3.2. X-Ray Diffraction analysis (XRD)3.3. Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) analysis and Energy Dispersion Spectrometry (XEDS)analysis3.4. Optical microscopy3.5. Gas permeation analysis4. Palladium membrane reactors4.1. A brief history on the development of membrane reactors4.2. Commercial and potential applications of palladium-based membrane reactors4.3. The role of the hydrogen gas4.4. High temperature membrane reactors4.5. Some case studies of membrane reactors in the literature5. Conclusions9. Mathematical modelling of Pd-alloy Membrane Reactors1. Introduction2. Pd and Pd-alloy membranes2.1. Elementary step of H2 permeation and Sievert’s law2.2. Literature data of H2 permeation2.3. Concentration polarization3. Thermodynamic equilibrium in Pd-alloy membrane reactor4. Models of Pd-alloy membrane reactors4.1. Mass balances4.1.1. Tubular membrane reactor4.1.2. Batch membrane reactor4.1.3. Continuous stirred tank membrane reactor4.2. Energy balances4.2.1. Tubular membrane reactor4.2.2. Batch membrane reactor4.2.3. Continuous stirred tank membrane reactor4.3. Literature models4.4. Isothermal model results of Pd-alloy MRS4.4.1. Tubular membrane reactor4.4.2. Continuous stirred tank membrane reactor4.5. Nonisothermal models of Pd-alloy mrs4.5.1. Tubular membrane reactor5. Acknowledgements6. List of symbols7. References10. Oxygen and Hydrogen separation membranes based on dense ceramic mixed conductors1. Introduction2. Theory2.1. Defects 2.2. Diffusivity, Mobility and Conductivity; The Nernst-Einstein Relation2.3. Transport Theory for Dense Mixed Conducting Gas Separation Membranes - General Expressions2.4. From Charged to Well-Defined Species: The Electrochemical Equilibrium2.5. The Voltage Over a Sample2.6. Flux of a Particular Species2.7. Fluxes in a Mixed Proton, Oxygen Ion, and Electron Conductor2.8. Fluxes in a Mixed Proton and Electron Conductor2.9. Fluxes in a Mixed Proton and Oxygen Ion Conductor2.10. Fluxes in a Mixed Proton, Oxygen Ion, and Electron Conductor Revisited2.11. Permeation of Neutral Hydrogen Species2.12. Surface Kinetics issues in Mixed Conductors 3. Materials properties3.1. Stability requirements3.1.1. Thermal stability3.1.2. Chemical stability2. A. CO2 stability2. B. Water vapour stability3.1.3. Kinetic stability3. A. Kinetic demixing3. B. Kinetic decomposition3. C. Microstructural instability3.1.4. Mechanical stability 3.2. Classes of materials3.2.1. Oxygen separation membranes1. A. Fluorite based1. B. Perovskite based 1. C. Bismuth based 1. D. New possibilities3.2.2. Hydrogen separation membranes2. A. Perovskite based2. B. CaF2 related structures 2. C. Pyrochlore based2. D. Monazite based2. E. Tungsten based2. F. Phosphate based2. G. Other possibilities3.3. Effects of the microstructure on the contribution of grain boundary4 Applications5 Challenges and prospects6 Conclusions