Human Hypothalamus: Basic and Clinical Aspects, Part I
Handbook of Clinical Neurology (Series Editors: Aminoff, Boller and Swaab)By
- Dick Swaab, Netherlands Institute for Brain Research, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
As the human hypothalamus has traditionally been considered part of the neuroendocrine system, it has been of little interest to neurologists. This volume creates renewed interest in the subject, highlighting groundbreaking research that links this complex part of the human brain to a variety of neurological and psychological disorders.
Clinicians, researchers, and practitioners from a variety of medical fields will find this to be a comprehensive presentation of new research that applies to a variety of disorders, including their origin, diagnosis, and treatment. From groundbreaking discussions that link the human hypothalamus to attention deficits in the dementias, to its role in disorders such as narcolepsy and certain epilepsies, users will find this volume to be an invaluable resource for research and patient care.
Specific information on topics including depression, eating disorders, aggression, and mental retardation are included, giving those in the field of neurology, psychiatry, endocrinology, and pediatrics a comprehensive understanding on how the human hypothalamus is related to patient disorders in these fields.
Clinical neurologists and researchers in the neurosciences
Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Published: December 2003
- Part I. Nuclei of the human hypothalamus: cytoarchitecture, chemoarchitecture, functional neuroanatomy, topographic neuropathology.
1. Introduction. 1.1 Anatomical borders of the hypothalamus. 1.2 Strategic research and structure-function relationships. 1.3 The autopsy and brain banking. 1.4 Confounding factors. 1.5 Parameters of neuronal metabolic activity in postmortem tissue. 1.6 Fetal hypothalamic development and adult markers of the human hypothalamic nuclei. 2. Nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) and diagonal band of Broca (DBB). 2.1 Anatomy. 2.2 Chemoarchitecture. 2.3 Alzheimer's disease. 2.4 Neuronal loss vs. atrophy. 2.5 Neurotrophin receptors in the NBM. 2.6 Other disorders affecting the NBM and DBB. 3. Islands of Calleja, insulae terminalis. 4. Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and pineal gland. 4.1 Circadian, seasonal, monthly and circaseptan rhythms in the SCN. 4.2 SCN development, birth and circadian rhythms. 4.3 Circadian and circannual rhythms in aging and Alzheimer's disease. 4.4 The SCN in relation to sex, reproduction and sexual orientation. 4.5 Melatonin and its receptors. 5. Sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) = intermediate nucleus = interstitial nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus (INAH-1) = preoptic nucleus. 5.1 Nomenclature and homology to the rat SDN-POA. 5.2 Development, sexual differentiation, aging and Alzheimer's disease. 6. Other sexual dimorphisms. 6.1. Interstitial nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus (INAH)-2 and -3. 6.2 Anterior commissure, the interthalamic adhesion, corpora mamillaria and the third ventricle. 6.3 Sex hormone receptor distribution. 7. Bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and the septum. 7.1 The BST. 7.2 Reversed sex differences in the BST in transsexuals. 7.3 The septum verum. 8. Supraoptic and paraventricular nucleus (SON, PVN). 8.1 The fetal SON, PVN in birth and development. 8.2 Colocalization of tyrosine-hydroxylase (TH) with oxytocin and vasopressin. 8.3 The SON and PVN in aging and Alzheimer's disease. 8.4 (a) Vasopressin secretion in various disorders: (b) Vasopressin administration in various disorders. 8.5 Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons in the PVN. 8.6 Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) neurons in the PVN. 8.7 Other neuroactive compounds in the SON, PVN and periventricular nucleus. 9. Ventromedial nucleus (VMN; nucleus of Cajal). 10. Dorsomedial nucleus (DMN). 11. Infundibular nucleus (arcuate nucleus), subventricular nucleus and median eminence. 12. Lateral tuberal nucleus (NTL). 12.1 Chemoarchitecture and function. 12.2 The NTL in neurodegenerative diseases. 13. Tuberomamillary complex. 13.1 Anatomy. 13.2 Neurodegenerative diseases and schizophrenia. 13.3 Posterior hypothalamic area. 14. Lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) and intermediate hypothalamic area (IHA). 15. Subthalamic nucleus and zona incerta. 15.1 Subthalamic nucleus. 15.2 Zona incerta. 16. Corpora mamillaria. References.