Histidine Kinases in Signal Transduction

By

  • Masayori Inouye, Robert Johnson Medical School, Picataway, New Jersey, U.S.A.
  • Rinku Dutta, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, NJ, USA

Living cells are constantly sensing environmental changes, and their abilities to sense these changes and adapt to them are essential for their survival. In bacteria, histidine kinases are the major sensors for these environmental stresses, enabling cells to adapt to new growth conditions. Written by leading experts in the field, this book provides an up-to-date and comprehensive review on the structure and function of histidine kinases. It also provides extensive information on the physiological roles of histidine kinases in bacteria and eukaryotes. An an essential reference for cell biologists, microbiologists, molecular biologists, and biochemists interested in signal transduction. Experimental biologists and pharmacologists studying signal transduction systems in living organisms will also find it a valuable research tool.
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Audience

Biochemists; molecular biologists, experimental biologists; pharmocologists; pharmaceutical companies with R&D programs in broad spectrum antibiotics; and specialists studying signal transduction systems in living organisms.

 

Book information

  • Published: November 2002
  • Imprint: ACADEMIC PRESS
  • ISBN: 978-0-12-372484-7

Reviews

"...this book contains 23 chapters written by some of the major researchers in the field. ...Of likely utility for biologists, microbiologists, molecular biologists, and biochemists interested in signal transduction, as well as experimental biologists and pharmacologists." —SCITECH BOOK NEWS (March 2003)



Table of Contents


Preface

Contributors

1 Histidine Kinases: Introductory Remarks

Introduction

Basic Structure of Histidine Kinases (HKs)

Uniqueness of HKs

Difference between HKs and Ser/Thr/Tyr Kinases

Signal Transduction Mechanism

Regulation of Kinase and Phosphatase Activities: Switch Model and Rheostat Model

Concluding Remarks

References

2 The Histidine Kinase Family: Structures of Essential Building Blocks

Introduction

Kinase/Phosphatase Core Domain

Phosphotransfer Domain

Considerations on Domain Interactions

Concluding Remarks

References

3 Regulation of Porins in Escherichia coli by the Osmosensing Histidine Kinase~hosphatase EnvZ

Introduction

Domain A Is the Catalytic Domain

Domain B Is the Catalysis-Assisting and ATP-Binding Domain

Monomeric Histidine Kinase: Topological Arrangement between Domain A and Domain B

Role of DNA in EnvZ Function

Stoichiometric Complex Formation between EnvZ and OmpR

Regulation of Kinase and Phosphatase Activities: Switch Model versus Rheostat Model

Mechanism of Osmoregulation

Concluding Remarks

References

4 Structure and Function of CheA, the Histidine Kinase Central to Bacterial Chemotaxis

Introduction

Modular Structure of CheA

A Superfamily of Histidine Kinases and ATPases

Nucleotide Binding by CheA P4 and the GHL ATPases

ATP Hydrolysis and Conformation of P4

HPt Domain P1 and Phosphoryl Transfer

P2 Domain and Response Regulator Coupling

A Separate Dimerization Domain

Receptor Coupling by the P5 Regulatory Domain

Is Flexibility between Domains Important for Signaling?

Controlling Protein-Protein Interactions with ATP

Prospects for the Design of Antibiotics Directed at CheA

What Is Next?

References

5 Transmembrane Signaling and the Regulation of Histidine Kinase Activity

Introduction

Membrane Receptor Kinases

Type I Histidine Kinase Receptors

Receptors with Several Membrane-Spanning Segments

Transmembrane Signaling in Bacterial Chemotaxis

Conclusions

References

6 Structure-Function Relationships: Chemotaxis and Ethylene Receptors

Introduction

Chemotaxis and Chemoreceptors

The Ethylene Receptor

Chemoreceptors and Membrane-Bound Histidine Proteins Kinases

References

7 New Insights into the Mechanism of the Kinase and Phosphatase Activities of Escherichia coli NRH (NtrB) and Their Regulation by the PII Protein

Introduction

Mechanism of NRII Autophosphorylation and Regulation of This Activity by PII

Regulation of the Transphosphorylation Activity of NRII by PII

Evidence for Conformational Alteration of NRII by PII Binding

Mapping the Interaction of PII with NRII

Mapping the Activities of NRII

Explaining the Activities of Mutant Forms of NRII

References

8 Role of the Histidine-Containing Phosphotransfer Domain (HPt) in the Muhistep Phosphorelay through the Anaerobic Hybrid Sensor, ArcB

Introduction

HPt Domain

Structure and Function of Common HPt Domains

Multistep ArcB->ArcA Phosphorelay System in Escherichia coli Anaerobiosis

Advantage of Multistep Phosphorelay

Multisignaling Circuitry of the ArcB->ArcA Phosphorelay

Phospho-HPt Phosphatase Is Involved in the ArcB->ArcA Signaling Circuitry

Physiological Role of SixA-Phosphatase in Response to Anaerobic Respiratory Conditions

Cross-Phosphorelay Occurs on OmpR through EnvZ Osmosensor and ArcB Anaerosensor

Atypical HPt Factor Is Involved in the Multistep RcsC->YojN->RcsB Phosphorelay

HPt Domains in Higher Plants

Concluding Remarks

References

9 Genome-Wide Analysis of Escherichia coli Histidine Kinases

Introduction

Histidine Kinase Genes in the E. coli Genome

Versatility of E. coli Histidine Kinases

Deletion Analysis of Every Histidine Kinase Gene in the E. coli Genome

DNA Microarray Analysis of Histidine Kinases for Gene Regulations

References

10 Signal Transmission and Specificity in the Sporulation Phosphorelay of Bacillus subtilis

Introduction

Structural Characterization of Phosphorelay Components

Interactions of the Response Regulator with the Phosphotransferase Domain

Conclusion

References

11 Histidine Kinases: Extended Relationship with GHL ATPases

Introduction

Diverse Functions Supported by a Conserved ATP-Binding Site

Features of the ATP-Binding Site

Mechanistic Implications

Closing Remarks

References

12 Response Regulator Proteins and Their Interactions with Histidine Protein Kinases

Introduction

Regulatory Domains

Effector Domains

Regulation of Response Regulatory Phosphorylation

Interactions of Response Regulators with Histidine Kinases and Histidine-Containing Phosphotransfer Domains

Perspectives

References

13 Cyanophytochromes, Bacteriophytochromes, and Plant Phytochromes: Light-Regulated Kinases Related to Bacterial Two-Component Regulators

Introduction to Phytochromes (Phys)

Phys as Proteins Kinases?

Discovery of Cyanophytochromes (CphPs) and Bacteriophytochromes (BphPs)

Photochemical Properties of CphPs and BphPs

Histidine Kinase Domains and Kinase Activity for CphPs and BphPs

Biological Functions of Prokaryotic Phys

Do Higher Plant Phys Function as Two-Component Histidine Kinases?

Functions of the Kinase Activity of Phys

BphP, CphP, and Phy Evolution

Conclusions

References

14 Histidine Kinases in the Cyanobacterial Circadian System

Introduction

Cyanobacterial Circadian Rhythms

Molecular Genetics of Cyanobacterial Circadian System: Kai Genes

SasA, a KaiC-Binding Histidine Kinase as a Circadian Amplifier

CikA, a Bacteriophytochrome Family Histidine Kinase as a Circadian Photic Input Factor

Perspectives: Toward Further Understanding of His-to-Asp Signaling

Pathways in the Circadian Network in Cyanobacteria

References

15 Two-Component Control of Quorum Sensing in Gram-Negative Bacteria

Introduction

Quorum Sensing in Vibrio harveyi

Quorum Sensing in Myxococcus xanthus

Conclusions

References

16 Intercellular Communication in Gram-Positive Bacteria Depends on Peptide Pheromones and Their Histidine Kinase Receptors

Introduction

Intercellular Communication by Unmodified Peptides

Intercellular Communication by Modified Peptides

Bacteria Speak Different Languages

Peptide Pheromones Depend on Histidine Kinase Receptors

The HPK10 Subfamily of Histidine Kinases

References

17 Initiation of Bacterial Killing by Two-Component Sensing of a "Death Peptide": Development of Antibiotic Tolerance in Streptococcus pneumoniae

Introduction

Cell Death and Signal Transduction

Summary and Perspectives

References

18 Role of Multiple Sensor Kinases in Cell Cycle Progression and Differentiation in Caulobacter crescentus

Introduction

Temporal and Spatial Control of Cell Cycle Events

Levels of Developmental Regulation

Control of Differentiation by Cell Cycle Checkpoints

Two-Component Signal Transduction and Cell Cycle Regulation

Summary and Perspectives

References

19 The Slnl-Ypdl-Sskl Multistep Phosphorelay System That Regulates an Osmosensing MAP Kinase Cascade in Yeast

Introduction

The Common Downstream Pathway

The SLN 1 Branch

The SHO 1 Branch

Concluding Remarks

References

20 Histidine Kinases of Dictyostelium

Introduction

Eukaryotic Histidine Kinases

Dictyostelium Histidine Kinases

Phenotypic Analyses

Double Mutants

Structure and Function of DhkA

The Late Adenylyl Cyclase ACR

Summary and Perspectives

References

21 Ethylene Perception in Arabidopsis by the ETR1 Receptor Family: Evaluating a Possible Role for Two-Component Signaling in Plant Ethylene Responses

Introduction

ETR1 Family Gene Structure and Biochemistry

Ethylene Sensor Domain

GAF-like Domain

Histidine Kinase-Coupled Receptor

Receiver Domain

Kinase Activity in the Cytosolic Portion of ETR1

Mutational Analysis of the Ethylene Pathway

TwomComponent Signaling through MAPk Kinases in Saccharomyces cerevesiae and Arabidopsis

References

22 Pathogenicity and Histidine Kinases: Approaches Toward the Development of a New Generation of Antibiotics

Introduction

Are Histidine Kinases Good Antibacterial Targets?

Alternatives to High Throughput Screens: Possibilities for Structure-Based Screening for Identification Histidine of Kinase Inhibitors

References

23 Molecular Evolution of Histidine Kinases

Introduction

Domains of Histidine Kinases

Evolution of Histidine Kinases

Conclusion

References

Index