Handbook of Industrial Crystallization


  • Allan Myerson, Professor of Chemical Engineering and Dean, Armour College of Engineering and ScienceIllinois Institute of Technology

Crystallization is an important separation and purification process used in industries ranging from bulk commodity chemicals to specialty chemicals and pharmaceuticals. In recent years, a number of environmental applications have also come to rely on crystallization in waste treatment and recycling processes.The authors provide an introduction to the field of newcomers and a reference to those involved in the various aspects of industrial crystallization. It is a complete volume covering all aspects of industrial crystallization, including material related to both fundamentals and applications. This new edition presents detailed material on crystallization of biomolecules, precipitation, impurity-crystal interactions, solubility, and design.
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Chemical engineers (industry and university) Biochemists, biotechnologists, and pharmaceutical scientists Materials scientists and engineers Process and plant engineers and designers


Book information

  • Published: December 2001
  • ISBN: 978-0-7506-7012-8

Table of Contents

Solutions and Solution Properties; Introduction and Motivation; Units; Solubility and Inorganics; Solubility of Organics; Supersaturation and Metastability; Solution Properties; Thermal Properties; Crystals, Crystal Growth, and Nucleation; Crystals; Nucleation; Crystal Growth; The Influence of Impurities and Solvents on Crystallization; Introduction; Factors Determining Crystal Shape; Influence of Solvents on Volume and Surface Diffusion Steps; Structure of the Crystalline Interface; Factors Affecting Impurity Incorporation; Effect of Impurities on Crystal Growth Rate; Some Chemical Aspects of Solvent and Impurity Interactions; Tailor-Made Additives; Effect of Solvents on Crystal Growth; Analysis and Measurement of Crystallization Utilizing the Population Balance; Particle Size and Distribution; Measurement of Size Distribution; The Mixed Suspension, Mixed Product Removal (MSMPR) Formalism for the Population Balance; Generalized Population Balance; Extension and Violations of the MSMPR Model; Crystallizer Selection and Design; Fundamentals; Selection of a Crystallizer; Equipment Types; Crystallizer Design Procedure; Instrumentation and Control; Crystallizer Costs; Precipitation Processes; Introduction; Physical and Thermodynamic Properties; Nucleation Kinetics; Crystal Growth Kinetics; Other Processes Attributes in Precipitation; Experimental Techniques; Modeling and Control of Crystal Size and CSD; Precipitation in Practice; Melt Crystallization; Definitions; Benefits of Melt Crystallization; Phase Diagrams; Crystallization Kinetics; Solid Layer Crystallization; Suspension Crystallization; Concepts of Existing Plants; The Sweating Step; The Washing Step; Continuous Plants; Crystallizer Mixing: Understanding and Modeling Crystallizer Mixing and Suspension Flow; Introduction; Crystallizer Flows; Distribution of Key Variables in Crystallizers; Crystallizers; Scale-up; Modeling; Control of Crystallization Processes; Introduction; Feedback Controllers; Industrial Crystallizer Control; Advanced Continuous Crystallizer Control; Advanced Batch Crystallizer Control; Batch Crystallization; Introduction; Batch Crystallizers; Batch Crystallization Analysis; Factors Affecting Batch Crystallization; Batch Crystallization Operations; Crystallization in the Pharmaceutical and Bioprocessing Industries; The Role of Crystallization in Bioprocesses; Solubility and the Creation of Supersaturation; Control of Particle Size and Morphology; The Purity of Biochemicals Produced by Crystallization; Applications of Crystallization in the Pharmaceutical Industry; Crystallization of Proteins; Introduction; Protein Chemistry; Variables Affecting Protein Solubility; Nucleation and Growth Mechanisms; Physicochemical Measurements; Traditional Screening Tools; Crystallization in Foods; Controlling Crystallization in Foods; Control to Produce Desired Crystalline Structure; Control to Prevent