Handbook of Fire and Explosion Protection Engineering Principles book cover

Handbook of Fire and Explosion Protection Engineering Principles

for Oil, Gas, Chemical and Related Facilities

Handbook of Fire and Explosion Protection Engineering Principles: for Oil, Gas, Chemical and Related Facilities is a general engineering handbook that provides an overview for understanding problems of fire and explosion at oil, gas, and chemical facilities. This handbook offers information about current safety management practices and technical engineering improvements. It also provides practical knowledge about the effects of hydrocarbon fires and explosions and their prevention, mitigation principals, and methodologies. This handbook offers an overview of oil and gas facilities, and it presents insights into the philosophy of protection principles. Properties of hydrocarbons, as well as the characteristics of its releases, fires and explosions, are also provided in this handbook. The book includes chapters about fire- and explosion-resistant systems, fire- and gas-detection systems, alarm systems, and methods of fire suppression. The handbook ends with a discussion about human factors and ergonomic considerations, including human attitude, field devices, noise control, panic, and security. People involved with fire and explosion prevention, such as engineers and designers, will find this book invaluable.


Fire Protection Engineers, Health, Safety and Environment professionals, Safety or Loss Prevention Engineers, Risk Consultants. The major industrial market is the Oil and Gas sector including exploration, production, refining, distribution, chemical processing & storage, engineering and consulting, project engineering, safety experts, fire & safety regulatory bodies.

Hardbound, 340 Pages

Published: December 2010

Imprint: William Andrew

ISBN: 978-1-4377-7857-1


  • Preface

    About the Author

    1 Introduction

        1.1 Fire, Explosions, and Environmental Pollution

        1.2 Historical Background

        1.3 Legal Influences

        1.4 Hazards and Their Prevention

        1.5 Risk Management and Insurance

        1.6 Senior Management Responsibility and Accountability

    2 Overview of Oil and Gas Facilities

        2.1 Introduction

        2.2 Exploration

        2.3 Production

        2.4 Enhanced Oil Recovery

        2.5 Transportation

        2.6 Refining

        2.7 Typical Refinery Process Flow

        2.8 Marketing

    3 Philosophy of Protection Principles

        3.1 Introduction

        3.2 Legal Obligations

        3.3 Insurance Recommendations

        3.4 Company and Industry Standards

        3.5 Worst Case Condition

        3.6 Independent Layers of Protection

        3.7 Design Principles

        3.8 Accountability and Auditability

    4 Physical Properties of Hydrocarbons

        4.1 Introduction

        4.2 General Description of Hydrocarbons

        4.3 Characteristics of Hydrocarbons

        4.4 Flash Point

        4.5 Autoignition Temperature

        4.6 Vapor Density Ratio

        4.7 Vapor Pressure

        4.8 Specific Gravity

        4.9 Flammable

        4.10 Combustible

        4.11 Heat of Combustion

        4.12 Some Common Hydrocarbons

    5 Characteristics of Hydrocarbon Releases, Fires, and Explosions

        5.1 Introduction

        5.2 Hydrocarbon Releases

        5.3 Gaseous Releases

        5.4 Mists or Spray Releases

        5.5 Liquid Releases

        5.6 Nature and Chemistry of Hydrocarbon Combustion

        5.7 Hydrocarbon Fires

        5.8 Deliberate Terrorist Explosions

        5.9 Semi-Confined Explosion Overpressures

        5.10 Vapor Cloud Overpressures

        5.11 Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosions

        5.12 Smoke and Combustion Gases

        5.13 Mathematical Consequence Modeling

        5.14 Methods of Extinguishing Flames

        5.15 Incident Scenario Development

        5.16 Terminology of Hydrocarbon Explosions and Fires

    6 Historical Survey of Fire and Explosions in the Hydrocarbon Industries

        6.1 Introduction

        6.2 Lack of Industry Incident Database and Analysis

        6.3 Insurance Industry Perspective

        6.4 Process Industry Perspective

        6.5 Major Incidents Affect Process Industry Safety Management

        6.6 Incident Data

        6.7 Summary

    7 Risk Analysis

        7.1 Introduction

        7.2 Risk Identification and Evaluation

        7.3 Specialized Supplemental Studies

        7.4 Risk Acceptance Criteria

        7.5 Relevant and Accurate Data Resources

        7.6 Insurance Risk Evaluations

    8 Segregation, Separation, and Arrangement

        8.1 Introduction

        8.2 Segregation

        8.3 Separation

        8.4 Manned Facilities and Locations

        8.5 Process Units

        8.6 Storage Facilities - Tanks

        8.7 Flares and Burn Pits

        8.8 Critical Utilities and Support Systems

        8.9 Arrangement

        8.10 Plant Roads - Truck Routes, Crane Access, and Emergency Response

    9 Grading, Containment, and Drainage Systems

        9.1 Introduction

        9.2 Drainage Systems

        9.3 Process and Area Drainage

        9.4 Surface Drainage

        9.5 Open Channels and Trenches

        9.6 Spill Containment

    10 Process Controls

        10.1 Introduction

        10.2 Human Observation

        10.3 Electronic Process Control

        10.4 Instrumentation, Automation, and Alarm Management

        10.5 System Reliability

        10.6 Transfer and Storage Controls

        10.7 Burner Management Systems

    11 Emergency Shutdown

        11.1 Introduction

        11.2 Definition and Objective

        11.3 Design Philosophy

        11.4 Activation Mechanism

        11.5 Levels of Shutdown

        11.6 Reliability and Fail Safe Logic

        11.7 Esd/Dcs Interfaces

        11.8 Activation Points

        11.9 Activation Hardware Features

        11.10 Isolation Valve Requirements

        11.11 Emergency Isolation Valves

        11.12 Subsea Isolation Valves

        11.13 Protection Requirements

        11.14 System Interactions

    12 Depressurization, Blowdown, and Venting

        12.1 Introduction

        12.2 Objective of Depressuring

        12.3 Blowdown

        12.4 Venting

        12.5 Flares and Burn Pits

    13 Overpressure and Thermal Relief

        13.1 Introduction

        13.2 Causes of Overpressure

        13.3 Pressure Relief Valves

        13.4 Thermal Relief

        13.5 Solar Heat

        13.6 Pressure Relief Device Locations

    14 Control of Ignition Sources

        14.1 Introduction

        14.2 Open Flames, Hot Work, Cutting, and Welding

        14.3 Electrical Arrangements

        14.4 Electrical Area Classification

        14.5 Electrical Area Classification Divisions and Groups

        14.6 Surface Temperature Limits

        14.7 Classified Locations and Release Sources

        14.8 Protection Measures

        14.9 Smoking

        14.10 Static

        14.11 Lightning

        14.12 Internal Combustion Engines

        14.13 Hot Surface Ignition

        14.14 Pyrophoric Materials

        14.15 Spark Arrestors

        14.16 Hand Tools

        14.17 Mobile Telephones, Laptops, and Portable Electronic Field Devices

    15 Elimination of Process Releases

        15.1 Introduction

        15.2 Inventory Reduction

        15.3 Vents and Relief Valves

        15.4 Sample Points

        15.5 Drainage Systems

        15.6 Storage Facilities

        15.7 Pump Seals

        15.8 Vibration Stress Failure of Piping

        15.9 Rotating Equipment

    16 Fire and Explosion-Resistant Systems

        16.1 Introduction

        16.2 Explosions

        16.3 Definition of Explosion Potentials

        16.4 Explosion Protection Design Arrangements

        16.5 Vapor Dispersion Enhancements

        16.6 Damage-Limiting Construction

        16.7 Fireproofing

        16.8 Radiation Shields

        16.9 Water Cooling Sprays

        16.10 Vapor Dispersion Water Sprays

        16.11 Locations Requiring Consideration of Fire-Resistant Measures

        16.12 Flame Resistance

        16.13 Fire Dampers

        16.14 Smoke Dampers

        16.15 Flame and Spark Arrestors

        16.16 Piping Detonation Arrestors

    17 Fire and Gas Detection and Alarm Systems

        17.1 Introduction

        17.2 Fire and Smoke Detection Methods

        17.3 Smoke Detectors

        17.4 Thermal or Heat Detectors

        17.5 Gas Detectors

        17.6 Application

        17.7 Catalytic Point Gas Detector

        17.8 Infra-Red (IR) Beam Gas Detector

        17.9 Ultrasonic Area Gas Detector

        17.10 Alarm Setting

        17.11 Calibration

        17.12 Hazardous Area Classification

        17.13 Fire and Gas Detection Control Panels

        17.14 Graphic Annunciation

        17.15 Power Supplies

        17.16 Emergency Backup Power

        17.17 Time Delay

        17.18 Voting Logic

        17.19 Cross Zoning

        17.20 Executive Action

        17.21 Circuit Supervision

        17.22 Vibration Avoidance

    18 Evacuation

        18.1 Introduction

        18.2 Emergency Response Plan

        18.3 Alarms and Notification

        18.4 Evacuation Routes

        18.5 Emergency Doors, Stairs, Exits, and Escape Hatches

        18.6 Marking and Identification

        18.7 Shelter-in-Place

        18.8 Offshore Evacuation

    19 Methods of Fire Suppression

        19.1 Introduction

        19.2 Portable Fire Extinguishers

        19.3 Water Suppression Systems

        19.4 Water Supplies

        19.5 Fire Pumps

        19.6 Fire Pump Standards and Tests

        19.7 Firewater Distribution Systems

        19.8 Firewater Control and Isolation Valves

        19.9 Sprinkler Systems

        19.10 Water Deluge Systems

        19.11 Water Spray Systems

        19.12 Water Flooding

        19.13 Steam Smothering

        19.14 Water Curtains

        19.15 Blow Out Water Injection Systems

        19.16 Hydrants, Monitors, and Hose Reels

        19.17 Nozzles

        19.18 Foam Suppression Systems

        19.19 Manual Firefighting Utilization

        19.20 Gaseous Systems

        19.21 Chemical Systems

        19.22 Dual Agent Systems

    20 Special Locations, Facilities, and Equipment

        20.1 Introduction

        20.2 Arctic Environments

        20.3 Desert Arid Environments

        20.4 Tropical Environments

        20.5 Earthquake Zones

        20.6 Offshore Facilities

        20.7 Pipelines

        20.8 Exploration Wellheads (Onshore and Offshore)

        20.9 Loading Facilities

        20.10 Electrical Equipment and Communications Rooms

        20.11 Oil Filled Transformers

        20.12 Battery Rooms

        20.13 Enclosed Turbines or Gas Compressor Packages

        20.14 Emergency Generators

        20.15 Heat Transfer Systems

        20.16 Cooling Towers

        20.17 Hydrocarbon Testing Laboratories (Including Oil  or Water Testing and Darkrooms)

        20.18 Warehouses

        20.19 Cafeterias and Kitchens

    21 Human Factors and Ergonomic Considerations

        21.1 Introduction

        21.2 Human Attitude

        21.3 Control Room Consoles

        21.4 Field Devices

        21.5 Instructions, Markings, and Identification

        21.6 Colors and Identification

        21.7 Noise Control

        21.8 Panic

        21.9 Security

        21.10 Accommodation of Religious Practices


    Appendix A: Testing Firewater Systems

        A.1 Testing of Firewater Pumping Systems

        A.2 Testing of Firewater Distribution Systems

        A.3 Testing of Sprinkler and Deluge Systems

        A.4 Testing of Foam Fire Suppression Systems

        A.5 Testing of Firewater Hose Reels and Monitors

        A.6 Fire Protection Hydrostatic Testing Requirements

    Appendix B: Reference Data

        B.1 FIre Resistance Testing Standards

        B.2 Explosion and Fire Resistance Ratings

        B.3 National Electrical Manufacturers Association (Nema) Classifications

        B.4 Hydraulic Data

        B.5 Selected Conversion Factors

    Acronym List




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