Global Palaeoclimate of the Late CenozoicBy
- V.A. Zubakov
- I.I. Borzenkova, State Hydrological Institute, Leningrad, U.S.S.R.
This is a detailed description of the history and chronology of global climate based on event-signal stratigraphy. The history of global climate is described for the last fifty million years with the description for the last one million years in detail. Climatostratigraphic sequences of twelve key regions are taken as a basis, eight of them situated in the USSR territories. Chronology of climatic events of the Pleistocene, Pliocene and Miocene is developed based on palaeomagnetic and radiometric data. The authors' version of its correlation with oxygene-isotope scales of deep-sea sediments is given. Theoretical problems of climatic stratigraphy and palaeoclimatology are discussed, in particular, the causes of climatic change. The Northern Hemisphere palaeoclimatic reconstructions are made for the Holocene, Eemian and Pliocene temperature optima, considered as possible palaeoanalogues of climate of the 21st Century. The book is intended primarily for a wide circle of scientific workers, palaeoclimatologists and palaeogeographers, but will also interest geologists, biologists, palaeomagnetologists and archaeologists.
Developments in Palaeontology and Stratigraphy
Published: March 1990
...the book is a useful source for regional studies.
... this book is full of very useful data and the synthesis attempted for the whole Northern Hemisphere is very attractive. A book to recommend to specialists working on Cenozoic climatic variations.
A. Berger, Earth-Science Reviews
...a valuable source of information on Russian deposits and Russian paleoclimate work.
Paleogeography, Paleoclimatology, Paleoecology
- Preface to the Russian edition of Palaeoclimates of the Late Cenozoic by V.A. Zubakov and I.I. Borzenkova (Gidrometeoizdat, 1983). Preface to the Russian edition of The Global Climatic Events of the Pleistocene, by V.A. Zubakov (Gidrometeoizdat, 1986). PART I. THE GLOBAL CLIMATIC EVENTS OF THE PLEISTOCENE. Introduction. Section I. Methodological problems of palaeclimatology. 1. The time structure of climate. On the definitions of climate, palaeoclimate and palaeoclimatography. On the terms ``global climatic event'',``climathem'', climatostratigraphy. On the methods of high-resolution climatostratigraphic correlation and chronological scale of global climatic events. The principles of time classification of the global climatic events: Taxonomic differences in the climato - sedimentary cycles and climathems. The two climatic regimes in the history of the Earth. Main features of the glacial climatic regime. Main features of the greenhouse climatic regime. 2. Deep-sea standard for global climatic events. History of climatostratigraphic study of the Pleistocene. The significance of the oxygen-isotope scale for climatostratigraphic reconstructions. Systematic aspects of ``ocean-continent'' climatochronological correlation. The significance of geomagnetic data. Section II. Evidence for climatic changes in the Pleistocene - regional review. 3. Effects of global climatic events in the Mediterranean - Caspian system. The Mediterranean as a new climatoparastratotype region. The Caspian basin as a major record of changes in humidification in interior Eurasia. The Azov-Black Sea basin as a standard for the climatostratigraphic sequence on the shelf off Europe. The Mediterranean-Caspian paleohydrologic system as a record of global and regional climatic changes. 4. The loess assemblage of Eurasia as an indicator of climatic changes in the arid zone. The Loess zone of Europe. Loess in Asia. 5. Middle and high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere as a major record of continental glaciation in Pleistocene time. Russian plain. Glaciated area in western and central Europe. West Siberia. North-eastern Asia and Beringia. North America. The Arctic and sub-Arctic. Section III. The history of climate through the Pleistocene. 6. On the timing of palaeoclimates in the Pleistocene. Debatable problems of inter-regional climatostratigraphic correlation. On correspondence between the numbrs of climathems on land and in the sea. On two stratific lines in the geo-historical classification of the Pleistocene. Comparison of experience in the long-distance stratigraphic correlation of the Pleistocene. Rhythm-chronological approach to the Pleistocene classification. On three types of time classification of the Pleistocene climatic events. The role of the 400 ka cycle for chronological classification of the Pleistocene. 7. Climatic changes in the Early and Middle Pleistocene. Introduction. The sixth (Günz) kryo-superclimathem, 1.17-1.0 Ma. The fifth (Günz-Mindel) termo-superclimathem, 1.0-0.76 Ma. The fourth (Mindel) kryo-superclimathem, 760-585 ka. The third (Mindel0Riss) thermo-superclimathem, 585-350 ka. The second (``Riss'') kryo-superclimathem, 350-130 (170?) ka. 8. Climatic changes in the Late Pleistocene. Tyrrhenian (=Riss-Würm sensu lato) megathermochron, 245-118 ka. On the time-scope of the ``Riss-Würm'' (277-244 ka). The Early Riss-Würm - the seventh thermo-orthoclimathem, 245-190 ka. The sixth kryo-ortoclimathem, 190-127 ka. The late Riss-Würm or thermo-orthoclimathem 5e, 127 (170?) - 117 ka. Spatial climate reconstructions for the temperature optimum of the last thermochron (isotopic substage 5e), 125-120 ka. The Würm megakryochron, 117-15 ka. On chronological models of the last glaciation. The early Würm, or kryo-orthoclimathem 5d-4, 117-62 ka. The middle Würm - thermochron 3c, 62-42 ka. The late Würm, 42-13 ka. Spatial reconstruction of the Northern Hemisphere climate during the late Würm, 20-17 ka. 9. Climatic changes through Late Glacial and Post-glacial, 16-0 ka BP. Principles of the time classification of the last 16 ka. On the global temperature trend over the last 16 ka. Anathermal from 16 to 9 ka BP. Megathermal, 9-5.3 ka BP. Katathermal, 5.3-0 ka BP. On possible causes of climate change in the late glacial-holocene. Moisture conditions in different latitude zones over the late glacial-holocene: a review of empirical data. Empirical data on moisture conditions in tropical and subtropical regions between 0 and 25°N and S. Empirical data on moisture trends during the late glacial-holocene between 25 and 40°N and S. Empirical data on moisture condition variations in middle (between 40 - 45°N and S) and high (north of 60°N) latitudes.Summary. Global climatic events - an empirical basis of high-resolution stratification. On the causes of climatic changes in the Pleistocene. References. PART II. PRE-PLEISTOCENE CLIMATES: MAIN STEPS OF THE LATE CENOZOIC GLACIAL-PSYCHROSPHERIC REGIME STANDING. Introduction. 10. Palaeoclimates of the pre-Pliocene Cenozoic. 11. Palaeoclimates of the Pliocene. Summary. Subject Index.